Table of Contents
Physiology Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 673530, 7 pages
Clinical Study

Daily Controlled Consumption of an Electrokinetically Modified Water Alters the Fatigue Response as a Result of Strenuous Resistance Exercise

1Department of Applied Physiology & Kinesiology, Center for Exercise Science, University of Florida, 100 FLG, P.O. Box 118205, 1864 Stadium Road, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
2Department of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4

Received 12 February 2014; Revised 11 April 2014; Accepted 25 April 2014; Published 7 May 2014

Academic Editor: Michael Koutsilieris

Copyright © 2014 Paul A. Borsa and Kelly A. Larkin-Kaiser. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Our objective was to assess the effects of consuming electrokinetically modified water (EMW) on fatigue attenuation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) following resistance exercise. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-arm trial was used in this investigation. Forty participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a placebo-control group. Participants consumed the EMW or placebo water daily for eighteen days prior to completing a fatigue protocol for the elbow flexors. The fatigue protocol consisted of a single bout of resistance exercise for the biceps brachii. Participants were tested for isometric strength before exercise and immediately following exercise. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction was used as the criterion measure for strength. To calculate the fatigue index, the postexercise maximal voluntary isometric contraction value was divided by the preexercise maximal voluntary isometric contraction value multiplied by 100. Also, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed using the Borg scale. Fatigue indices and RPE were significantly lower for the experimental group compared to the control group ( ). Consuming EMW for eighteen days prior to high intensity resistance exercise can significantly enhance muscle contractile function by reducing muscle fatigue and RPE.