Table of Contents
Physics Research International
Volume 2012, Article ID 232864, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/232864
Review Article

Softening the “Crystal Scaffold” for Life’s Emergence

139 Cite de l’Ocean, Montgaillard, 97400 St. Denis, Reunion
2Department of Physics, Delhi University, 244 Tagore Park, Delhi 110009, India

Received 1 August 2011; Accepted 13 November 2011

Academic Editor: Manh-Huong Phan

Copyright © 2012 Gargi Mitra-Delmotte and Asoke Nath Mitra. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. J. Russell, R. M. Daniel, A. J. Hall, and J. A. Sherringham, “A hydrothermally precipitated catalytic iron sulphide membrane as a first step toward life,” Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 231–243, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. T. Trevors and G. H. Pollack, “Hypothesis: the origin of life in a hydrogel environment,” Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. G. H. Pollack, X. Figueroa, and Q. Zhao, “Molecules, water, and radiant energy: new clues for the origin of life,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1419–1429, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. J. T. Trevors, “The composition and organization of cytoplasm in prebiotic cells,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 1650–1659, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  5. H. J. Morowitz, “A theory of biochemical organization, metabolic pathways, and evolution,” Complexity, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 39–53, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  6. M. J. Russell and N. T. Arndt, “Geodynamic and metabolic cycles in the Hadean,” Biogeosciences, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 97–111, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. J. Russell and W. Martin, “The rocky roots of the acetyl-CoA pathway,” Trends in Biochemical Sciences, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 358–363, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. H. Morowitz and E. Smith, “Energy flow and the organization of life,” Complexity, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 51–59, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. Lane, J. F. Allen, and W. Martin, “How did LUCA make a living? Chemiosmosis in the origin of life,” BioEssays, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 271–280, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. E. J. Milner-White and M. J. Russell, “Polyphosphate-peptide synergy and the organic takeover at the emergence of life,” Journal of Cosmology, vol. 10, pp. 3217–329, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  11. S. D. Copley, E. Smith, and H. J. Morowitz, “A mechanism for the association of amino acids with their codons and the origin of the genetic code,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 12, pp. 4442–4447, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. J. Trefil, H. J. Morowitz, and E. Smith, “The Origin of life,” American Scientist, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 206–213, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. G. Cairns-Smith, Seven Clues to the Origin of Life, Cambridge University Press, 1985.
  14. C. J. Davia, “Life, catalysis and excitable media: a dynamic systems approach to metabolism and cognition,” in The Emerging Physics of Consciousness, J. Tuszynski, Ed., Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  15. A. G. Cairns-Smith, “Chemistry and the missing era of evolution,” Chemistry, vol. 14, no. 13, pp. 3830–3839, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. L. M. Ricciardi and H. Umezawa, “Brain and physics of many-body problems,” Biological Cybernetics, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 44–48, 1967. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. I. J. M. Stuart, Y. Takahashi, and H. Umezawa, “On the stability and non-local properties of memory,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 605–618, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. W. J. Freeman and G. Vitiello, “Dissipation and spontaneous symmetry breaking in brain dynamics,” Journal of Physics A, vol. 41, no. 30, Article ID 304042, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Fröhlich, “Long­range coherence and energy storage in biological systems,” International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, vol. 2, pp. 641–649, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  20. E. del Giudice, R. M. Pulselli, and E. Tiezzi, “Thermodynamics of irreversible processes and quantum field theory: an interplay for the understanding of ecosystem dynamics,” Ecological Modelling, vol. 220, no. 16, pp. 1874–1879, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. N. Mitra, “QFT in physical systems:condensed matter to life sciences,” http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1108.0303.
  22. S. D. Filippo and G. Vitiello, “Vacuum structure for unstable particles,” Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento Series 2, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 92–96, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. Celeghini, M. Rasetti, and G. Vitiello, “Quantum dissipation,” Annals of Physics, vol. 215, no. 1, pp. 156–170, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Blasone, P. Jizba, and G. Vitiello, Quantum Field Theory and Its Macroscopic Manifestations, Imperial College Press, London, UK, 2011.
  25. E. del Giudice, G. Preparata, and G. Vitiello, “Water as a free electric dipole laser,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 1085–1088, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. del Giudice and A. Tedeschi, “Water and autocatalysis in living matter,” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 46–52, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. E. del Giudice, S. Doglia, M. Milani, and G. Vitiello, “A quantum field theoretical approach to the collective behaviour of biological systems,” Nuclear Physics, Section B, vol. 251, no. C, pp. 375–400, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. del Giudice, S. Doglia, M. Milani, and G. Vitiello, “Electromagnetic field and spontaneous symmetry breaking in biological matter,” Nuclear Physics, Section B, vol. 275, no. 2, pp. 185–199, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. del Giudice, P. R. Spinetti, and A. Tedeschi, “Water dynamics at the root of metamorphosis in living organisms,” Water, vol. 2, pp. 566–586, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  30. P.-G. de Gennes, “Soft matter: more than words,” Soft Matter, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 16, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. Mitra-Delmotte and A. N. Mitra, “Magnetism, entropy, and the first nano-machines,” Central European Journal of Physics, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 259–272, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. Mitra-Delmotte and A. N. Mitra, “Magnetism, FeS colloids, and the origins of life,” in The Legacy of Alladi Ramakrishnan in the Mathematical Sciences, K. Alladi, J. R. Klauder, and C. R. Rao, Eds., Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  33. N. V. Katre, “The conjugation of proteins with polyethylene glycol and other polymers. Altering properties of proteins to enhance their therapeutic potential,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 91–114, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. Arani, I. Bono et al., “QED Coherence and the thermodynamics of the Water,” International Journal of Modern Physics B, vol. 9, pp. 1813–1841, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  35. E. del Guidice and G. Vitiello, “Role of the electromagnetic field in the formation of domains in the process of symmetry-breaking phase transitions,” Physical Review A, vol. 74, no. 2, Article ID 022105, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. Leplae and H. Umezawa, “Dynamical rearrangement of symmetries - III - Superconductivity,” Il Nuovo Cimento A, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 410–426, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. W. Ho, “Towards a theory of the organism,” Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 343–363, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. Brizhik, E. del Giudice, S. E. Jørgensen, N. Marchettini, and E. Tiezzi, “The role of electromagnetic potentials in the evolutionary dynamics of ecosystems,” Ecological Modelling, vol. 220, no. 16, pp. 1865–1869, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H. Umezawa, Advanced Field Theory: Micro, Macro, and Thermal Physics, AIP, New York , NY, USA, 1993.
  40. N. Lahav, S. Nir, and A. C. Elitzur, “The emergence of life on Earth,” Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, vol. 75, no. 1-2, pp. 75–120, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. H. Beinert, “Iron-sulfur proteins: ancient structures, still full of surprises,” Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 2–15, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. F. W. Cope, “A review of the applications of solid state physics concepts to biological systems,” Journal of Biological Physics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–41, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Hemberger, P. Lunkenheimer, R. Fichtl, S. Weber, V. Tsurkan, and A. Loidl, “Multiferroicity and colossal magneto-capacitance in Cr-thiospinels,” Phase Transitions, vol. 79, no. 12, pp. 1065–1082, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J.-C. P. Gabriel and P. Davidson, “Mineral liquid crystals from self-assembly of anisotropic nanosystems,” Topics in Current Chemistry, vol. 226, pp. 119–172, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  45. J. Breivik, “Self-organization of template-replicating polymers and the spontaneous rise of genetic information,” Entropy, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 273–279, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 27, pp. 379–423, and 623–656, 1948. View at Google Scholar
  47. E. Schrödinger, What is Life?Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1944.
  48. R. W. Chantrell, A. Bradbury, J. Popplewell, and S. W. Charles, “Agglomerate formation in a magnetic fluid,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 2742–2744, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Y. Zubarev, J. Fleischer, and S. Odenbach, “Towards a theory of dynamical properties of polydisperse magnetic fluids effect of chain-like aggregates,” Physica A, vol. 358, no. 2-4, pp. 475–491, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. Li, Y. Huang, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, and Q. Li, “Effect of aggregates on the magnetization property of ferrofluids: a model of gaslike compression,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 448–454, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. F. J. Dyson, “Is life analog or digital?” Edge, vol. 82, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  52. J. M. Goodwin, B. E. Rosen, and J. J. Vidal, “Image recognition and reconstruction using associative magnetic processing,” International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 157–177, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  53. R. Palm and V. Korenivski, “A ferrofluid-based neural network: design of an analogue associative memory,” New Journal of Physics, vol. 11, Article ID 023003, p. 30, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. J. Russell, A. J. Hall, A. J. Boyce, and A. E. Fallick, “On hydrothermal convection systems and the emergence of life,” Economic Geology, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 419–438, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. W. Nitschke and M. J. Russell, “Hydrothermal focusing of chemical and chemiosmotic energy, supported by delivery of catalytic Fe, Ni, Mo/W, Co, S and Se, forced life to emerge,” Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 481–496, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  56. R. T. Wilkin and H. L. Barnes, “Formation processes of framboidal pyrite,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 323–339, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. Rickard, I. B. Butler, and A. Oldroyd, “A novel iron sulphide mineral switch and its implications for earth and planetary science,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 189, no. 1-2, pp. 85–91, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. F. Allen, “Redox control of transcription: sensors, response regulators, activators and repressors,” FEBS Letters, vol. 332, no. 3, pp. 203–207, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. K. Johnson, “Iron-sulfur proteins,” in Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry, B. B. King, Ed., vol. 4, pp. 1896–1915, Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  60. H. Beinert, R. H. Holm, and E. Münck, “Iron-sulfur clusters: nature's modular, multipurpose structures,” Science, vol. 277, no. 5326, pp. 653–659, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. F. Baymann, E. Lebrun, M. Brugna, B. Schoepp-Cothenet, M. T. Giudici-Orticoni, and W. Nitschke, “The redox protein construction kit: pre-last universal common ancestor evolution of energy-conserving enzymes,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, vol. 358, no. 1429, pp. 267–274, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  62. L. Noodleman and D. A. Case, “Density-functional theory of spin polarization and spin coupling in iron-sulfur clusters,” Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 38, no. C, pp. 423–470, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. L. Noodleman, T. Lovell, T. Liu, F. Himo, and R. A. Torres, “Insights into properties and energetics of iron-sulfur proteins from simple clusters to nitrogenase,” Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 259–273, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. L. Noodleman, C. Y. Peng, D. A. Case, and J. M. Mouesca, “Orbital interactions, electron delocalization and spin coupling in iron-sulfur clusters,” Coordination Chemistry Reviews, vol. 144, pp. 199–244, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. S. E. McGlynn, D. W. Mulder, E. M. Shepard, J. B. Broderick, and J. W. Peters, “Hydrogenase cluster biosynthesis: organometallic chemistry nature's way,” Dalton Transactions, no. 22, pp. 4274–4285, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  66. M. J. Russell and A. J. Hall, “The emergence of life from iron monosulphide bubbles at a submarine hydrothermal redox and pH front,” Journal of the Geological Society, vol. 154, no. 3, pp. 377–402, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. J. Russell and A. J. Hall, “The onset and early evolution of life,” in Evolution of Early Earth's Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, and Biosphere—Constraints from Ore Deposits, S. E. Kesler and H. Ohmoto, Eds., vol. 198, pp. 1–32, Geological Society of America, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  68. M. J. Russell, A. J. Hall, and D. Turner, “In vitro growth of iron sulphide chimneys: possible culture chambers for origin-of-life experiments,” Terra Nova, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 238–241, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. B. A. Grzybowski, C. E. Wilmer, J. Kim, K. P. Browne, and K. J. M. Bishop, “Self-assembly: from crystals to cells,” Soft Matter, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1110–1128, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. J. Russell, A. J. Hall, and A. P. Gize, “Pyrite and the origin of life,” Nature, vol. 344, no. 6265, p. 387, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. A. J. Boyce, M. L. Coleman, and M. J. Russell, “Formation of fossil hydrothermal chimneys and mounds from Silvermines, Ireland,” Nature, vol. 306, no. 5943, pp. 545–550, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. J. Boyce, Exhalation, sedimentation and sulphur isotope geochemistry of the silvermines Zn + Pb + Ba deposits, County Tipperary, Ireland, Ph.D. thesis, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, U.K., 1990.
  73. R. C. L. Larter, A. J. Boyce, and M. J. Russell, “Hydrothermal pyrite chimneys from the Ballynoe baryte deposit, Silvermines, County Tipperary, Ireland,” Mineralium Deposita, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 309–317, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. H. Ohfuji and J. Akai, “Icosahedral domain structure of framboidal pyrite,” American Mineralogist, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 176–180, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. A. S. Keys and S. C. Glotzer, “How do quasicrystals grow?” Physical Review Letters, vol. 99, no. 23, Article ID 235503, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. Z. Sawlowicz, “Framboids: from their origin to application,” Prace Mineralogiczne, vol. 88, pp. 1–80, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  77. A. Preisinger and S. Aslanian, “The formation of framboidal greigites in the Black Sea,” Geophysical Research Abstracts, vol. 6, Article ID 02702, (SRef-ID: 1607-7962/gra/EGU04-A-02702), 2004.
  78. G. Vitiello, “Coherent states, fractals and brain waves,” New Mathematics and Natural Computation, vol. 5, pp. 245–264, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  79. G. Vitiello, “Fractals and the fock-bargmann representation of coherent states,” in Quantum Interaction, P. Bruza, D. Sofge et al., Eds., pp. 6–16, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  80. Boyce, Exhalation, sedimentation and sulphur isotope geochemistry of the Silvermines Zn + Pb + Ba deposits, County Tipperary, Ireland, Ph.D. thesis, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK, 1990.
  81. G. Nicolis and I. Prigogine, “Symmetry breaking and pattern selection in far-from-equilibrium systems,” Proceedings National Academy of Sciences, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 659–663, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  82. G. Wächtershäuser, “Before enzymes and templates: theory of surface metabolism,” Microbiological Reviews, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 452–484, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  83. S. Duhr and D. Braun, “Thermophoretic depletion follows boltzmann distribution,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 96, no. 16, Article ID 168301, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. E. du T. de Lacheisserie, G. Gignoux, and M. Schlenker, Eds., Magnetism—Fundamentals, Springer, Grenoble Sciences, 2005.
  85. I. Carmeli, V. Skakalova, R. Naaman, and Z. Vager, “Magnetization of chiral monolayers of polypeptide: a possible source of magnetism in some biological membranes,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 761–764, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. R. Naaman and Z. Vager, “Spin selective electron transmission through monolayers of chiral molecules,” Topics in Current Chemistry, vol. 298, pp. 237–257, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  87. R. A. Rosenberg, “Spin-polarized electron induced asymmetric reactions in chiral molecules,” Topics in Current Chemistry, vol. 298, pp. 279–306, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  88. M. J. Russell, A. J. Hall, and W. Martin, “Serpentinization as a source of energy at the origin of life,” Geobiology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 355–371, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  89. K. D. Kwon, K. Refson, S. Bone et al., “Magnetic ordering in tetragonal FeS: evidence for strong itinerant spin fluctuations,” Physical Review B, vol. 83, no. 6, Article ID 064402, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. G. Vitiello, “The dissipative brain,” in Brain and Being. At the Boundary between Science, Philosophy, Language and Arts, G. Globus, K. H. Pribram, and G. Vitiello, Eds., pp. 108–129, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  91. E. del Giudice and G. Preparata, “A new QED picture of water: understanding a few fascinating phenomena,” in Macroscopic Quantum Coherence, Sassaroli et al., Ed., pp. 108–129, World Scientific, Singapore, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  92. J. L. Kirschvink, A. Kobayashi-Kirschvink, J. C. Diaz-Ricci, and S. J. Kirschvink, “Magnetite in human tissues: a mechanism for the biological effects of weak ELF magnetic fields,” Bioelectromagnetics, Supplement, vol. 1, pp. 101–113, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  93. M. Pósfai, P. R. Buseck, D. A. Bazylinski, and R. B. Frankel, “Iron sulfides from magnetotactic bacteria: structure, composition, and phase transitions,” American Mineralogist, vol. 83, no. 11-12, pp. 1469–1481, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  94. M. Pósfai, K. Cziner, E. Márton et al., “Crystal-size distributions and possible biogenic origin of Fe sulfides,” European Journal of Mineralogy, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 691–703, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. M. Pósfai, B. M. Moskowitz, B. Arató et al., “Properties of intracellular magnetite crystals produced by Desulfovibrio magneticus strain RS-1,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 249, no. 3-4, pp. 444–455, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. J. Reitner, J. Peckmann, A. Reimer, G. Schumann, and V. Thiel, “Methane-derived carbonate build-ups and associated microbial communities at cold seeps on the lower Crimean shelf (Black Sea),” Facies, vol. 51, no. 1-4, pp. 66–79, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. S. L. Simmons, D. A. Bazylinski, and K. J. Edwards, “South-seeking magnetotactic bacteria in the Northern Hemisphere,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5759, pp. 371–374, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  98. J. L. Kirschvink, M. M. Walker, and C. E. Diebel, “Magnetite-based magnetoreception,” Current Opinion in Neurobiology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 462–467, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  99. J. L. Kirschvink and J.W. Hagadorn, “10 A grand unified theory of biomineralization,” in Biomineralization, E. Bäuerlein, Ed., pp. 139–150, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  100. M. Winklhofer and J. L. Kirschvink, “A quantitative assessment of torque-transducer models for magnetoreception,” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. S273–S289, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  101. R. E. Kopp and J. L. Kirschvink, “The identification and biogeochemical interpretation of fossil magnetotactic bacteria,” Earth-Science Reviews, vol. 86, no. 1–4, pp. 42–61, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. Z. Merali, “Was life forged in a quantum crucible?” New Scientist, vol. 196, no. 2633, pp. 6–7, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  103. A. Patel, “Quantum algorithms and the genetic code,” Pramana, vol. 56, no. 2-3, pp. 367–381, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  104. N. Haydon, S. E. McGlynn, and O. Robus, “Speculation on quantum mechanics and the operation of life giving catalysts,” Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 35–50, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  105. J. T. Trevors and L. Masson, “Quantum microbiology,” Current Issues in Molecular Biology, vol. 13, pp. 43–50, 2011. View at Google Scholar