Table of Contents
Physics Research International
Volume 2012, Article ID 321075, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/321075
Research Article

Modeling of Optical Nanoantennas

1Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh 35514, Egypt
2Electronics and Communications Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt

Received 11 May 2012; Accepted 3 October 2012

Academic Editor: Sergi Gallego

Copyright © 2012 Bedir B. Yousif and Ahmed S. Samra. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles Of Nano-Optics, Cambridge University Press, 1st edition, 2006.
  2. D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. James Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 957–961, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science, vol. 308, no. 5728, pp. 1607–1609, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science, vol. 275, no. 5303, pp. 1102–1106, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp et al., “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Physical Review Letters, vol. 78, no. 9, pp. 1667–1670, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 83, no. 21, pp. 4357–4360, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi et al., “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 82, no. 18, pp. 3095–3097, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. W. Zhang, X. Cui, B. S. Yeo, T. Schmid, C. Hafner, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale roughness on metal surfaces can increase tip-enhanced raman scattering by an order of magnitude,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1401–1405, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Rogobete, F. Kaminski, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Design of plasmonic nanoantennae for enhancing spontaneous emission,” Optics Letters, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 1623–1625, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nature Photonics, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 234–237, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 96, 4 pages, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  12. T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. Van Hulst, “λ/4 resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 28–33, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. Bharadwaj and L. Novotny, “Spectral dependence of single molecule fluorescence enhancement,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 21, pp. 14266–14274, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 496–501, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: resonators for local field enhancement,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 94, no. 7, pp. 4632–4642, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Physical Review B, vol. 72, no. 16, Article ID 165409, 6 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 355–360, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” The Journal of chemical physics, vol. 124, no. 6, Article ID 061101, 4 pages, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 94, no. 1, Article ID 017402, 4 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H. J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 95, no. 1, Article ID 017402, 4 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. N. Farahani, H. J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl et al., “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no. 12, Article ID 125506, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Hecht, P. Mühlschlegel, J. N. Farahani et al., “Prospects of resonant optical antennas for nano-analysis,” Chimia, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. A765–A769, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna: towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 70, no. 11, pp. 1354–1356, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Alda, J. M. Rico-García, J. M. López-Alonso, and G. Boreman, “Optical antennas for nano-photonic applications,” Nanotechnology, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. S230–S234, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. J. González, B. Ilic, J. Aida, and G. D. Boreman, “Antenna-coupled infrared detectors for imaging applications,” IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 117–120, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 99, no. 10, pp. 2957–2975, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. Enders, S. Rupp, A. Küller, and A. Pucci, “Surface enhanced infrared absorption on Au nanoparticle films deposited on SiO2/Si for optical biosensing: detection of the antibody-antigen reaction,” Surface Science, vol. 600, no. 23, pp. L305–L308, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cells assemble and align gold nanorods conjugated to antibodies to produce highly enhanced, sharp, and polarized surface Raman spectra: a potential cancer diagnostic marker,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1591–1597, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. J. Steven, S. Ravikant, and C. Niloy, “Rapid spectral analysis for spectral imaging,” Biomedical Optics Express, vol. 1, pp. 157–164, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  30. S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, and M. A. Green, “Enhanced emission from Si-based light-emitting diodes using surface plasmons,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 88, Article ID 161102, 3 pages, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  31. P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 96, Article ID 113002, 4 pages, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  32. M. Danckwerts and L. Novotny, “Optical frequency mixing at coupled gold nanoparticles,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 98, Article ID 026104, 4 pages, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  33. Y. M. Wu, L. W. Li, and B. Liu, “Gold bow-tie shaped aperture nanoantenna: wide band near-field resonance and far-field radiation,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1918–1921, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K. J. Ooi, P. Bai, M. X. Gu, and L. K. Ang, “Design of a monopole-antenna-based resonant nanocavity for detection of optical power from hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Optics Express, vol. 19, no. 18, pp. 17075–17085, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  35. C. S. T. Microwave Studio, 2011, http://www.cst.com/.
  36. E. Tatartschuk, E. Shamonina, and L. Solymar, “Plasmonic excitations in metallic nanoparticles: resonances, dispersion characteristics and near-field patterns,” Optics Express, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 8447–8460, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. H. Taminiau, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, “A monopole antenna at optical frequencies: single-molecule near-field measurements,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 55, no. 11 I, pp. 3010–3017, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, C. Simovski, P. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “An arrayed nanoantenna for broadband light emission and detection,” Physica Status Solidi, vol. 5, no. 11 I, pp. 347–349, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. Weiland, “A discretization method for the solution of maxwell’s equations for six-component fields,” AEU-Archiv fur Elektronik und Ubertragungstechnik, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 116–120, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Enhanced directional excitation and emission of single emitters by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Optics Express, vol. 16, no. 14, pp. 16858–16866, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Physical Review B, vol. 6, Article ID 4370, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  42. E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, vol. 1, Academic, New York, NY, USA, 1985.
  43. C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2005.
  44. L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 98, Article ID 266802, 4 pages, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  45. X. Shi, L. Hesselink, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrahigh light transmission through a C-shaped nanoaperture,” Optics Letters, vol. 28, no. 15, pp. 1320–1322, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. Li, G. W. Kattawar, P. W. Zhai, and P. Yang, “Electric and magnetic energy density distributions inside and outside dielectric particles illuminated by a plane electromagnetic wave,” Optics Express, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 4554–4559, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Z. Chen, X. Li, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Backscattering enhancement of light by nanoparticles positioned in localized optical intensity peaks,” Applied Optics, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 633–638, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Wei, “Resonant Field Enhancements from Metal Nanoparticle Arrays,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 153–158, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, “Nanolithography using high transmission nanoscale bowtie apertures,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 361–364, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 485–490, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich et al., “Shaping emission spectra of fluorescent molecules with single plasmonic nanoresonators,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 100, no. 20, Article ID 203002, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. L. Liu, B. Wang, X. Cao, X. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Comparison investigation of near- and far-field properties for plasmon resonance of silver nanosphere dimers,” Photonics and Nanostructures, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 16–24, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. Hoffman, C. Hafner, P. Leidenberger, J. Hesselbarth, and S. Burger, “Comparison of electromagnetic field solvers for the 3D analysis of plasmonic nano antennas,” in Modeling Aspects in Optical Metrology II, vol. 7390 of Proceedings of the SPIE, 2009.