Table of Contents
Physics Research International
Volume 2012, Article ID 576547, 14 pages
Review Article

Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Microscopy of a H–Si(111)1 × 1 Surface in Ultra-High Vacuum Conditions

1School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292, Japan
2Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 5-3 Yonbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8666, Japan

Received 2 December 2011; Accepted 10 February 2012

Academic Editor: Vladimir I. Gavrilenko

Copyright © 2012 Yoshihiro Miyauchi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper reviews the use of optical sum frequency generation (SFG) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions to observe the dynamics of a hydrogen terminated Si(111)1 × 1 surface. First, we took SFG and SHG microscopic images of the surface after IR light pulse irradiation and found that the SHG and nonresonant SFG signals were enhanced, probably due to the formation of dangling bonds after hydrogen desorption. Second, we observed time-resolved SFG intensity images of a H–Si(111)1 × 1 surface. After visible pump light irradiation, the nonresonant SFG signal increased at probe delay time 0 ps and then decreased over a life time of 565 ps. The resonant SFG signal reduced dramatically at 0 ps and then recovered with an anisotropic line shape over a life time of 305 ps. The areas of modulated SFG signals at delay time 277 ps were expanded with an anisotropic aspect. Finally, we observed SFG intensity images of hydrogen deficiency on a Si(111)1 × 1 surface as a function of temperature. These images of the H–Si(111) surface, taken with a spatial resolution of 5 μm at several temperatures from 572 to 744 K, showed that the hydrogen desorbs homogeneously.