Table of Contents
Physics Research International
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 640605, 5 pages
Research Article

The Photon-Baryon Governed Universe

Paul-Klee-Str. 5, D-67061 Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Germany

Received 28 September 2011; Accepted 12 December 2011

Academic Editor: C. P. Singh

Copyright © 2012 Laszlo A. Marosi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In a previous paper we postulated that the repulsive force responsible for the universal expansion is associated with the excitation of the empty space (quantum vacuum) and the excitation energy is represented by the energy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In this paper, we show that the concept of the repulsive space expanding photon field (i) can successfully be applied to explain the local velocity anomaly of the Milky Way Galaxy as shown by Faber and Burstein (1998) and Tully (1998), (ii) offers a convincing explanation of the still disputed question of the cosmological expansion on local and intergalactic scales discussed by Cooperstock et al. (1998), and (iii) explains the redshift (RS) of the CMB in accordance with the law of energy conservation without the need for dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE). Probably the most remarkable result of this model (abbreviated as photon/baryon: PB model in the following discussion) is that the individual voids building up the soup-bubble- (SB-) like galaxy distribution are the governing dynamical components of the universal expansion. Further consequence implies that the universe is considerably older than the interpretation of the Hubble constant as expansion velocity suggests.