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This article has been retracted as it is essentially identical in content; the article contains identical figures from a previously published paper titled “Nanocrystalline formation and optical properties of germanium thin films prepared by physical vapor deposition,” by A. A. Akl and H. Howar, which was published in Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, Volume 70, Issue 10, October 2009, Pages 1337–1343.

View the original article here.


  1. Z. Al-Sharafi, S. Mohyeddine, S. Osman Mohammed, and R. M. Kershi, “Structural and optical properties of germanium thin films prepared by the vacuum evaporation technique,” Physics Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 594968, 7 pages, 2014.
Physics Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 594968, 7 pages
Research Article

Structural and Optical Properties of Germanium Thin Films Prepared by the Vacuum Evaporation Technique

1Physics Department, Applied Science Faculty, Taiz University, Taiz, Yemen
2Physics Department, Science Faculty, Ibb University, Ibb, Yemen

Received 31 October 2013; Accepted 27 December 2013; Published 17 February 2014

Academic Editor: Ravindra R. Pandey

Copyright © 2014 Z. Al-Sharafi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Germanium (Ge) thin films have been deposited onto the glass substrates by the vacuum evaporation technique. The effect of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of the germanium thin films was investigated. The structural and optical properties of thin films were characterized by XRD, SEM, and UV-Vis techniques. XRD results showed that the structure of the deposited thin films changed from amorphous phase for the films, which deposited at room temperature, to crystalline phase for the films, which deposited at high temperature. Optimum temperature to obtain a good crystalline structure was 525°C. The SEM image also showed that the crystallization of the thin films is increased with increasing of annealing temperature. Transmittance and reflectance spectral were used to calculate the absorption coefficient. Two absorption edges in two spectral regions were distinguished according to direct and indirect electron transitions. Energy band gap was calculated by using the Tauc relationship for both direct and indirect electron transitions. The average value of was equal to 0.79 eV and 0.61 eV for direct and indirect transitions, respectively.