Table of Contents
Physics Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 503106, 15 pages
Research Article

Remaining Problems in Interpretation of the Cosmic Microwave Background

Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany

Received 25 June 2014; Accepted 7 April 2015

Academic Editor: Avishai Dekel

Copyright © 2015 Hans-Jörg Fahr and Michael Sokaliwska. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


By three independent hints it will be demonstrated that still at present there is a substantial lack of theoretical understanding of the CMB phenomenon. One point, as we show, is that at the phase of the recombination era one cannot assume complete thermodynamic equilibrium conditions but has to face both deviations in the velocity distributions of leptons and baryons from a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and automatically correlated deviations of photons from a Planck law. Another point is that at the conventional understanding of the CMB evolution in an expanding universe one has to face growing CMB temperatures with growing look-back times. We show, however, here that the expected CMB temperature increases would be prohibitive to star formation in galaxies at redshifts higher than where nevertheless the cosmologically most relevant supernovae have been observed. The third point in our present study has to do with the assumption of a constant vacuum energy density which is required by the present CDM-cosmology. Our studies here rather lead to the conclusion that cosmic vacuum energy density scales with the inverse square of the cosmic expansion scale . Thus we come to the conclusion that with the interpretation of the present-day high quality CMB data still needs to be considered carefully.