Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Related Hepatocellular Nodular Lesions in Cirrhosis: Controversies, Challenges, and Expectations
FNA of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. (a) Malignant hepatocytes exhibit pseudoacinar pattern with blackish bile plugs. Note transgressing endothelium with pink basement membrane material traversing tumor cells (Giemsa, ×200). (b) Rosette-like clusters of malignant hepatocytes form pseudoacini with blackish bile plugs within the dilated bile canaliculi. Some intracytoplasmic bile droplets are evident (Giemsa, ×400). (c) Similar pseudoacini are surrounded by malignant hepatocytes. The polygonal cells exhibit well-defined cell borders, ample granular cytoplasm, central round nucleus with well-defined nuclear membrane, distinct nucleolus and granular chromatin (Papanicolaou, ×400).