Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Pathology Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 3502438, 17 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3502438
Review Article

Pathologic and Radiologic Correlation of Adult Cystic Lung Disease: A Comprehensive Review

1Department of Internal Medicine, Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center, 836 West Wellington Avenue, Chicago, IL 60657, USA
2Department of Pathology, Loyola University Medical Center, 2160 S. 1st Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
3Department of Radiology, UC San Diego, 200 West Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103, USA
4Department of Anatomic Pathology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 303 E. Chicago Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA
5Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Prajwal Boddu; moc.liamg@clawjarpb

Received 13 September 2016; Revised 11 December 2016; Accepted 18 December 2016; Published 8 February 2017

Academic Editor: Piero Tosi

Copyright © 2017 Prajwal Boddu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. P. Genereux, “The end stage lung. Pathogenesis, pathology, and radiology,” Radiology, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 279–289, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. W. J. Tuddenham, “Glossary of terms for thoracic radiology: recommendations of the nomenclature committee of the Fleischner society,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 509–517, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. P. Cosgrove, S. K. Frankel, and K. K. Brown, “Challenges in pulmonary fibrosis. 3: cystic lung disease,” Thorax, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 820–829, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  4. C. Rowan, D. M. Hansell, E. Renzoni et al., “Diffuse cystic lung disease of unexplained cause with coexistent small airway disease: a possible causal relationship?” American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 228–234, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. D. Godwin, W. R. Webb, C. J. Savoca, G. Gamsu, and P. C. Goodman, “Multiple, thin-walled cystic lesions of the lung,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 593–604, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Collins, “CT signs and patterns of lung disease,” Radiologic Clinics of North America, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1115–1135, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. K. Attili, E. A. Kazerooni, B. H. Gross, K. R. Flaherty, J. L. Myers, and F. J. Martinez, “Smoking-related interstitial lung disease: radiologic-clinical-pathologic correlation,” Radiographics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1383–1396, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. J. Friedman and C. A. G. Hellekant, “Radiologic recognition of bronchopleural fistula,” Radiology, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 289–295, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. M. Hansell, A. A. Bankier, H. MacMahon, T. C. McLoud, N. L. Müller, and J. Remy, “Fleischner society: glossary of terms for thoracic imaging,” Radiology, vol. 246, no. 3, pp. 697–722, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Geddes, M. Davies, H. Koyama et al., “Effect of lung-volume-reduction surgery in patients with severe emphysema,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 343, no. 4, pp. 239–245, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. M. Seaman, C. A. Meyer, M. D. Gilman, and F. X. McCormack, “Diffuse cystic lung disease at high-resolution CT,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 196, no. 6, pp. 1305–1311, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. H. Woodring, A. M. Fried, and V. P. Chuang, “Solitary cavities of the lung: diagnostic implications of cavity wall thickness,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 135, no. 6, pp. 1269–1271, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  13. F. S. Bonelli, T. E. Hartman, S. J. Swensen, and A. Sherrick, “Accuracy of high-resolution CT in diagnosing lung diseases,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 170, no. 6, pp. 1507–1512, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Koyama, T. Johkoh, O. Honda et al., “Chronic cystic lung disease: diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution CT in 92 patients,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 180, no. 3, pp. 827–835, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. S. Park, K. K. Brown, R. M. Tuder, V. A. E. Hale, T. E. King Jr., and D. A. Lynch, “Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease: radiologic features with clinical and pathologic correlation,” Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Akira, S. Yamamoto, H. Hara, M. Sakatani, and E. Ueda, “Serial computed tomographic evaluation in desquamative interstitial pneumonia,” Thorax, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 333–337, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. S. Hare, C. A. Souza, G. Bain, J. M. Seely, M. M. Gomes, and M. Quigley, “The radiological spectrum of pulmonary lymphoproliferative disease,” British Journal of Radiology, vol. 85, no. 1015, pp. 848–864, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Cabibi, A. Sciuto, G. Geraci, C. Lo Nigro, G. Modica, and M. Cajozzo, “Cystic mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung: a case report,” Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, vol. 6, no. 1, article 128, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. Ichikawa, M. Kinoshita, T. Koga, K. Oizumi, K. Fujimoto, and N. Hayabuchi, “Lung cyst formation in lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia: Ct features,” Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 745–748, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. I. S. Silva, J. D. Flint, R. D. Levy, and N. L. Müller, “Diffuse lung cysts in lymphoid interstitial pneumonia: high-resolution CT and pathologic findings,” Journal of Thoracic Imaging, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 241–244, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Johkoh, N. L. Müller, H. A. Pickford et al., “Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia: thin-section CT findings in 22 patients,” Radiology, vol. 212, no. 2, pp. 567–572, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. O. Honda, T. Johkoh, K. Ichikado et al., “Differential diagnosis of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and malignant lymphoma on high-resolution CT,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 173, no. 1, pp. 71–74, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Corti, M. F. Villafañe, N. Trione, R. Schtirbu, and M. Narbaitz, “Primary pulmonary AIDS-related lymphoma,” Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 231–234, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. Filly, N. Blank, and R. A. Castellino, “Radiographic distribution of intrathoracic disease in previously untreated patients with Hodgkin's disease and non Hodgkin's lymphoma,” Radiology, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 277–281, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Sakashita, K. Ashizawa, K. Minami et al., “Localized ground glass opacities with multiple pulmonary small cysts in adult T-cell leukemia or lymphoma: an “alloy wheel” appearance,” Journal of Thoracic Imaging, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 321–324, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. Hardak, O. Brook, and M. Yigla, “Radiological features of pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in immunocompromised patients with and without AIDS,” Lung, vol. 188, no. 2, pp. 159–163, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. P. Kanne, D. R. Yandow, and C. A. Meyer, “Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in patients with and without HIV infection,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 198, no. 6, pp. W555–W561, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Ferre, F. Baguena, D. Podzamczer et al., “Lung cavitation associated with Pneumocystis carinii infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a report of six cases and review of the literature,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 134–139, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. C. Greiwe, K. Miller, C. Farver, and C. T. Lau, “AIRP best cases in radiologic-pathologic correlation: pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis,” Radiographics, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 987–990, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. H. Ryu and S. J. Swensen, “Cystic and cavitary lung diseases: focal and diffuse,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 78, no. 6, pp. 744–752, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. C. Moulton and A. F. Barker, “Pathogenesis of bronchiectasis,” Clinics in Chest Medicine, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 211–217, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  32. K. B. Newman and W. R. Beam, “Congenital bronchiectasis in an adult,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 198–201, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Ohdama, S. Akagawa, O. Matsubara, and Y. Yoshizawa, “Primary diffuse alveolar septal amyloidosis with multiple cysts and calcification,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1569–1571, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. L. Muller, P. Kullnig, and R. R. Miller, “The CT findings of pulmonary sarcoidosis: analysis of 25 patients,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 152, no. 6, pp. 1179–1182, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Nishino, B. Siewert, D. H. Roberts et al., “Excessive collapsibility of bronchi in bronchiectasis: evaluation on volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT,” Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 474–478, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. Marti-Bonmati, F. J. Catala, and F. R. Perales, “Computed tomography differentiation between cystic bronchiectasis and bullae,” Journal of Thoracic Imaging, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 83–85, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. B. Milliron, T. S. Henry, S. Veeraraghavan, and B. P. Little, “Bronchiectasis: mechanisms and imaging clues of associated common and uncommon diseases,” Radiographics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 1011–1030, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. Murphy, P. Schnyder, C. Herold, and C. Flower, “Bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia simulating bronchial carcinoma,” European Radiology, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 1165–1169, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Kyung Soo Lee, P. Kullnig, T. E. Hartman, and N. L. Muller, “Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: CT findings in 43 patients,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 162, no. 3, pp. 543–546, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. M. Goo and J.-G. Im, “CT of tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections,” Radiologic Clinics of North America, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 73–87, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. A. Smego Jr. and G. Foglia, “Actinomycosis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1255–1261, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. Biswas, A. Dey, S. Biswas, and M. Chakraborty, “It's easy to miss complicated hydatid cyst of lung,” Lung India, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 164–166, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. G. Im, Y. Kong, Y. M. Shin et al., “Pulmonary paragonimiasis: clinical and experimental studies,” Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 575–586, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. L. B. Gadkowski and J. E. Stout, “Cavitary pulmonary disease,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 305–333, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. I. Kuhajda, K. Zarogoulidis, K. Tsirgogianni et al., “Lung abscess-etiology, diagnostic and treatment options,” Annals of Translational Medicine, vol. 3, no. 13, p. 183, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. S. Al-Saleh, H. Grasemann, and P. Cox, “Necrotizing pneumonia complicated by early and late pneumatoceles,” Canadian Respiratory Journal, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 129–132, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. K. Kaira, T. Ishizuka, N. Yanagitani, N. Sunaga, T. Hisada, and M. Mori, “Pulmonary traumatic pneumatocele and hematoma,” Japanese Journal of Radiology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 100–102, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. T. C. Yang, C. Huang, J. Yu, F. Hsieh, and Y. Huang, “Traumatic pneumatocele,” Pediatrics & Neonatology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 135–138, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. V. J. Harris and R. Brown, “Pneumatoceles as a complication of chemical pneumonia after hydrocarbon ingestion,” "The American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 531–537, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Y. Park, T. S. Kim, C. A. Yi, E. Y. Cho, H. Kim, and Y. S. Choi, “Pulmonary cavitary mass containing a mural nodule: differential diagnosis between intracavitary aspergilloma and cavitating lung cancer on contrast-enhanced computed tomography,” Clinical Radiology, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 227–232, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. E. Sada Diaz, N. Hernandez, and J. Perez Roman, “Pulmonary histoplasmosis. Experience at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases,” Revista de Investigación Clínica, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 333–339, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  52. M.-K. Yuan, C.-Y. Chang, P.-H. Tsai, Y.-M. Lee, J.-W. Huang, and S.-C. Chang, “Comparative chest computed tomography findings of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung diseases and pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with acid fast bacilli smear-positive sputum,” BMC Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 14, article 65, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. F. G. Burrows, “Pulmonary nodules in rheumatoid disease: a report of two cases,” British Journal of Radiology, vol. 40, no. 472, pp. 256–261, 1967. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. S. Fauci and S. M. Wolff, “Wegener's granulomatosis: studies in eighteen patients and a review of the literature,” Medicine, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 535–561, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Y. J. Jeong, K. S. Lee, M. P. Chung et al., “Amyloidosis and Lymphoproliferative disease in Sjögren syndrome: thin-section computed tomography findings and histopathologic comparisons,” Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 776–781, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. T. Iwata, N. Nishiyama, K. Nagano et al., “Squamous cell carcinoma presenting as a solitary growing cyst in lung: a diagnostic pitfall in daily clinical practice,” Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 174–177, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. B. Hoag, M. Sherman, Q. Fasihuddin, and M. E. Lund, “A comprehensive review of spontaneous pneumothorax complicating sarcoma,” Chest, vol. 138, no. 3, pp. 510–518, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. N. Songür, A. Karakaş, M. Arikan, S. Demir, A. Bozkurt, and A. Uçaner, “Multiple cystic pulmonary metastases from osteosarcoma,” Respiration, vol. 72, no. 4, article no. 418, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. T. Traweek, A. J. Rotter, W. Swartz, and N. Azumi, “Cystic pulmonary metastatic sarcoma,” Cancer, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 1805–1811, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. K. C. Chan, W. Y. W. Tsang, M. Y. Pau, M. C. Tang, S. W. Pang, and C. D. M. Fletcher, “Lymphangiomyomatosis and angiomyolipoma: closely related entities characterized by hamartomatous proliferation of HMB-45-positive smooth muscle,” Histopathology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 445–455, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. L. Zawadzka-Głos, A. Jakubowska, M. Chmielik, A. Bielicka, and M. Brzewski, “Lower airway papillomatosis in children,” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 1117–1121, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. Choromańska and K. J. Macura, “Role of computed tomography in quantitative assessment of emphysema,” Polish Journal of Radiology, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 28–36, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. E. J. Stern and M. S. Frank, “CT of the lung in patients with pulmonary emphysema: diagnosis, quantification, and correlation with pathologic and physiologic findings,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 162, no. 4, pp. 791–798, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. W. M. Thurlbeck, “The incidence of pulmonary emphysema, with observations on the relative incidence and spatial distribution of various types of emphysema,” The American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 87, pp. 206–215, 1963. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. R. S. Mitchell, G. W. Silvers, N. Goodman, G. Dart, and J. C. Maisel, “Are centrilobular emphysema and panlobular emphysema two different diseases?” Human Pathology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 433–441, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. W. Mitlehner, M. Friedrich, and W. Dissmann, “Value of computer tomography in the detection of bullae and blebs in patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax,” Respiration, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 221–227, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. Garg and B. R. Herts, “Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome,” Journal of Urology, vol. 188, no. 4, pp. 1343–1344, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. K. Tobino, T. Hirai, T. Johkoh et al., “Differentiation between Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome and lymphangioleiomyomatosis: quantitative analysis of pulmonary cysts on computed tomography of the chest in 66 females,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 1340–1346, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. R. A. Murray, T. B. Poulton, M. G. Saltarelli et al., “Rare pulmonary manifestation of ehlers-danlos syndrome,” Journal of Thoracic Imaging, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 138–141, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. A. Lane, L. A. Marcos, N. F. Onen et al., “Paragonimus kellicotti Fluke infections in Missouri, USA,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 1263–1267, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. G. Vicidomini, M. Santini, A. Baldi, T. Cesarano, M. P. Di Marino, and F. Baldi, “Cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung in an adult,” Minerva Chirurgica, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 469–473, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. T. Stocker, J. E. Madewell, and R. M. Drake, “Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung. Classification and morphologic spectrum,” Human Pathology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 155–171, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. F. Watarai, M. Takahashi, T. Hosoya, and K. Murata, “Congenital lung abnormalities: a pictorial review of imaging findings,” Japanese Journal of Radiology, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 787–797, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. R. J. Summers, B. M. Shehata, J. C. Bleacher, C. Stockwell, and L. Rapkin, “Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung in association with congenital pulmonary airway malformation,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 2256–2259, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. A. Kosar, C. Tezel, A. Orki, H. Kiral, and B. Arman, “Bronchogenic cysts of the lung: report of 29 cases,” Heart Lung and Circulation, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 214–218, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J.-H. Lee and M.-J. Kim, “Intradiaphragmatic extralobar pulmonary sequestration in adult,” Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, vol. 9, no. 1, article no. 112, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. C. Hertzenberg, E. Daon, and J. Kramer, “Intralobar pulmonary sequestration in adults: three case reports,” Journal of Thoracic Disease, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 516–519, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. B. Savic, F. J. Birtel, W. Tholen, H. D. Funke, and R. Knoche, “Lung sequestration: report of seven cases and review of 540 published cases,” Thorax, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 96–101, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J. Ikezoe, S. Murayama, J. D. Godwin, S. L. Done, and J. A. Verschakelen, “Bronchopulmonary sequestration: CT assessment,” Radiology, vol. 176, no. 2, pp. 375–379, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S. M. Albelda, J. A. Kern, D. L. Marinelli, and W. T. Miller, “Expanding spectrum of pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria,” Radiology, vol. 157, no. 2, pp. 289–296, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. J. Zhang, Y.-L. Zhao, M.-X. Ye et al., “Rapidly progressive diffuse cystic lesions as a radiological hallmark of lung adenocarcinoma,” Journal of Thoracic Oncology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 457–458, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. D. P. N. Chan, J. F. Griffith, T.-W. Lee, L. T. C. Chow, and A. P. C. Yim, “Cystic pulmonary metastases from epithelioid cell sarcoma,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 1652–1654, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. H. J. Anderson and J. W. Pierce, “Carcinoma of the bronchus presenting as thin-walled cysts,” Thorax, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 100–105, 1954. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. L. A. Christiansen, P. Stage, E. Bille Brahe, and S. Bertelsen, “Rupture of the diaphragm,” Thorax, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 559–563, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. K. S. Hamid, S. S. Rai, and J. A. Rodriguez, “Symptomatic bochdalek hernia in an adult,” Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 279–281, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus