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Pathology Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 9076723, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9076723
Research Article

Accelerated Blood Clearance (ABC) Phenomenon Favors the Accumulation of Tartar Emetic in Pegylated Liposomes in BALB/c Mice Liver

1Laboratório de Pesquisas Clínicas, CIPHARMA, Escola de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil
2Laboratório de Nanotecnologia e Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
3Laboratório de Tecnologia Farmacêutica, CCQFA, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil
4Laboratório de Farmacologia, CIPHARMA, Escola de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil
5Laboratório de Morfopatologia, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to Simone A. Rezende; rb.pofu.fe@ednezer

Received 26 June 2017; Revised 24 November 2017; Accepted 11 December 2017; Published 16 January 2018

Academic Editor: Shahid Pervez

Copyright © 2018 Tamara C. M. Lopes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Tartar emetic (TE) was the first drug used to treat leishmaniasis. However, its use was discontinued due to high toxicity. Association of TE with liposomes is a strategy to reduce its side effects. Pegylated liposomes (Lpeg) present lower rates of uptake by macrophages and prolonged circulation compared to their nonpegylated counterparts. However, repeated administration of Lpeg can cause an Accelerated Blood Clearance (ABC) phenomenon, whereby recognition of liposomes by antibodies results in faster phagocytosis. This work evaluated the effect of TE administration on histopathological aspects and the effect of the ABC phenomenon on targeting and toxicity in mice. Our results show that treatment with free or liposomal TE had no effect on the erythrocyte count, on liver and spleen weight, and on hepatic, splenic, and cardiac histology in mice. Severe lesions were observed on the kidneys of animals treated with a single dose of free TE. Treatment with TE in Lpeg after induction of ABC phenomenon caused a significant increase in Sb level in the liver without toxicity. Furthermore, mice treated with TE in liposomes showed normal renal histopathology. These results suggest site-specific targeting of Sb to the liver after induction of ABC phenomenon with no toxicity to other organs.