Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Pain Research and Treatment
Volume 2012, Article ID 608359, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/608359
Clinical Study

Postoperative Pain Trajectories in Cardiac Surgery Patients

1Pain Research Center, Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, University of Utah, 615 Arapeen Drive, Suite 200, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA
2Departments of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Friedrich-Schiller University Hospital, 07747 Jena, Germany
3Department of Anesthesiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
4Department of Cardiac Surgery, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel

Received 28 July 2011; Revised 20 September 2011; Accepted 4 October 2011

Academic Editor: Robert N. Jamison

Copyright © 2012 C. Richard Chapman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Brodner, N. Mertes, H. Buerkle, M. A. E. Marcus, and H. Van Aken, “Acute pain management: analysis, implications and consequences after prospective experience with 6349 surgical patients,” European Journal of Anaesthesiology, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 566–575, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. S. Sinatra, J. Torres, and A. M. Bustos, “Pain management after major orthopaedic surgery: current strategies and new concepts,” The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 117–129, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. U. Werner, L. Søholm, P. Rotbøll-Nielsen, and H. Kehlet, “Does an acute pain service improve postoperative outcome?” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 1361–1372, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. L. Wu and M. D. Caldwell, “Effect of post-operative analgesia on patient morbidity,” Best Practice and Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 549–563, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. W. A. Macrae, “Chronic post-surgical pain: 10 Years on,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 77–86, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. M. Sommer, J. M. De Rijke, M. Van Kleef et al., “The prevalence of postoperative pain in a sample of 1490 surgical inpatients,” European Journal of Anaesthesiology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 267–274, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. C. L. Wu and S. N. Raja, “Treatment of acute postoperative pain,” The Lancet, vol. 377, no. 9784, pp. 2215–2225, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  8. J. B. Dahl and H. Kehlet, “Preventive analgesia,” Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 331–338, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  9. G. Niraj and D. J. Rowbotham, “Persistent postoperative pain: where are we now?” The British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 25–29, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  10. S. A. Strassels, C. Chen, and D. B. Carr, “Postoperative analgesia: economics, resource use, and patient satisfaction in an urban teaching hospital,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 130–137, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. M. Marks and E. J. Sachar, “Undertreatment of medical inpatients with narcotic analgesics,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 173–181, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. E. A Apfelbaum, “Patient perception of post-operative pain experience after outpatient surgery: patient survey,” 2000. View at Google Scholar
  13. M. Wheeler, G. M. Oderda, M. A. Ashburn, and A. G. Lipman, “Adverse events associated with postoperative opioid analgesia: a systematic review,” Journal of Pain, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 159–180, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. C. Ballantyne, D. B. Carr, S. DeFerranti et al., “The comparative effects of postoperative analgesic therapies on pulmonary outcome: cumulative meta-analyses of randomized, controlled trials,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 598–612, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. B. Carr and L. C. Goudas, “Acute pain,” The Lancet, vol. 353, no. 9169, pp. 2051–2058, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Rodgers, N. Walker, S. Schug et al., “Reduction of postoperative mortality and morbidity with epidural or spinal anaesthesia: results from overview of randomised trials,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 321, no. 7275, pp. 1493–1497, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. W. S. Beattie, N. H. Badner, and P. Choi, “Epidural analgesia reduces postoperative myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 853–858, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Holte and H. Kehlet, “Effect of postoperative epidural analgesia on surgical outcome,” Minerva Anestesiologica, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 157–161, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. I. Matot, A. Oppenheim-Eden, R. Ratrot et al., “Preoperative cardiac events in elderly patients with hip fracture randomized to epidural or conventional analgesia,” Anesthesiology, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 156–163, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. Wildgaard, J. Ravn, and H. Kehlet, “Chronic post-thoracotomy pain: a critical review of pathogenic mechanisms and strategies for prevention,” European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 170–180, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. F. M. Perkins and H. Kehlet, “Chronic pain as an outcome of surgery: a review of predictive factors,” Anesthesiology, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 1123–1133, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. J. Gerbershagen, E. Özgür, O. Dagtekin et al., “Preoperative pain as a risk factor for chronic post-surgical pain—six month follow-up after radical prostatectomy,” European Journal of Pain, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 1054–1061, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. Y. Gotoda, N. Kambara, T. Sakai, Y. Kishi, K. Kodama, and T. Koyama, “The morbidity, time course and predictive factors for persistent post-thoracotomy pain,” European Journal of Pain, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 89–96, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. E. Eisenberg, Y. Pultorak, D. Pud, and Y. Bar-El, “Prevalence and characteristics of post coronary artery bypass graft surgery pain (PCP),” Pain, vol. 92, no. 1-2, pp. 11–17, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. J. DeLoach, M. S. Higgins, A. B. Caplan, and J. L. Stiff, “The visual analog scale in the immediate postoperative period: intrasubject variability and correlation with a numeric scale,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 102–106, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. R. Chapman, G. W. Donaldson, J. J. Davis, and D. H. Bradshaw, “Improving individual measurement of postoperative pain: the pain trajectory,” Journal of Pain, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 257–262, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  27. D. R. Rogosa and J. B. Willett, “Understanding correlates of change by modeling individual differences in growth,” Psychometrika, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 203–228, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  28. J. J. McArdle and D. Epstein, “Latent growth curves within developmental structural equation models,” Child Development, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 110–133, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  29. N. M. Laird and J. H. Ware, “Random-effects models for longitudinal data,” Biometrics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 963–974, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. C. Littell, G. A. Milliken, W. W. Stroup, and R. Wolfinger, SAS System for Mixed Models, SAS Institute, 1996.
  31. J. D. Singer and J. B. Willett , Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis—Modeling Change and Event Occurrence, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2003.
  32. W. Meredith and J. Tisak, “Latent curve analysis,” Psychometrika, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 107–122, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. F. Muthen, “Latent variable modeling with longitudinal and multilevel data,” in Sociological Methodology 1997, A. Raftery, Ed., pp. 453–480, Blackwell, Boston, Mass, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  34. P. D. Mehta and S. G. West, “Putting the individual back into individual growth curves,” Psychological Methods, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 23–43, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  35. G. W. Donaldson and C. M. Moinpour, “Individual differences in quality-of-life treatment response,” Medical Care, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. III39–53, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  36. T. E. Duncan, S. C. Duncan, L. A. Strycher, F. Li, and A. Alpert, An Introduction to Latent Variable Growth Curve Modeling: Concepts, Issues and Applications, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 1999.
  37. G. T. Fechner, Elemente der Psychophysik, Breitkopf und Härtel, 1860.
  38. W. C. Clark, J. C. Yang, S. L. Tsui, K. F. Ng, and S. Bennett Clark, “Unidimensional pain rating scales: a multidimensional affect and pain survey (MAPS) analysis of what they really measure,” Pain, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 241–247, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. A. C. D. C. Williams, H. T. O. Davies, and Y. Chadury, “Simple pain rating scales hide complex idiosyncratic meanings,” Pain, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 457–463, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. M. J. Hodgins, “Interpreting the meaning of pain severity scores,” Pain Research and Management, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 192–198, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  41. C. P. Curtiss, “JCAHO: meeting the standards for pain management,” Orthopaedic Nursing, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 27–30, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  42. C. J. Kalkman, K. Visser, J. Moen, G. J. Bonsel, D. E. Grobbee, and K. G. M. Moons, “Preoperative prediction of severe postoperative pain,” Pain, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 415–423, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. K. J. M. Janssen, C. J. Kalkman, D. E. Grobbee, G. J. Bonsel, K. G. M. Moons, and Y. Vergouwe, “The risk of severe postoperative pain: modification and validation of a clinical prediction rule,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 1330–1339, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  44. T. E. Perry, J. D. Muehlschlegel, and S. C. Body, “Genomics: risk and Outcomes in Cardiac Surgery,” Anesthesiology Clinics, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 399–417, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  45. M. U. Werner, H. N. Mjöbo, P. R. Nielsen, and Å. Rudin, “Prediction of postoperative pain: a systematic review of predictive experimental pain studies,” Anesthesiology, vol. 112, no. 6, pp. 1494–1502, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  46. A. Abrishami, J. Chan, F. Chung, and J. Wong, “Preoperative pain sensitivity and its correlation with postoperative pain and analgesic consumption: a qualitative systematic review,” Anesthesiology, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 445–457, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  47. B. Brandsborg, M. Dueholm, H. Kehlet, T. S. Jensen, and L. Nikolajsen, “Mechanosensitivity before and after hysterectomy: a prospective study on the prediction of acute and chronic postoperative pain,” The British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 940–947, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  48. H. J. Gerbershagen, O. Dagtekin, J. Gaertner et al., “Preoperative chronic pain in radical prostatectomy patients: preliminary evidence for enhanced susceptibility to surgically induced pain,” European Journal of Anaesthesiology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 448–454, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  49. R. Ruscheweyh, M. Marziniak, F. Stumpenhorst, J. Reinholz, and S. Knecht, “Pain sensitivity can be assessed by self-rating: development and validation of the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire,” Pain, vol. 146, no. 1-2, pp. 65–74, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  50. M. Granot, “Can we predict persistent postoperative pain by testing preoperative experimental pain?” Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 425–430, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  51. P. R. Nielsen, L. Nørgaard, L. S. Rasmussen, and H. Kehlet, “Prediction of post-operative pain by an electrical pain stimulus,” Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 582–586, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  52. S. Goebel, B. Baumann, A. Steinert, S. Reppenhagen, and H. Faller, “Elevated postoperative pain levels following orthopedic surgery: depression as a strong predictor,” Schmerz, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 54–61, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  53. N. E. Morone, D. K. Weiner, B. Herbeck Belnap et al., “The impact of pain and depression on recovery after coronary artery bypass grafting,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 72, no. 7, pp. 620–625, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  54. A. M. Vranceanu, J. B. Jupiter, C. S. Mudgal, and D. Ring, “Predictors of pain intensity and disability after minor hand surgery,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 956–960, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  55. K. W. Ene, G. Nordberg, B. Sjöström, and I. Bergh, “Prediction of postoperative pain after radical prostatectomy,” BMC Nursing, vol. 7, article 14, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  56. S. Lautenbacher, C. Huber, D. Schöfer et al., “Attentional and emotional mechanisms related to pain as predictors of chronic postoperative pain: a comparison with other psychological and physiological predictors,” Pain, vol. 151, no. 3, pp. 722–731, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  57. M. Papaioannou, P. Skapinakis, D. Damigos, V. Mavreas, G. Broumas, and A. Palgimesi, “The role of catastrophizing in the prediction of postoperative pain,” Pain Medicine, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1452–1459, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  58. L. Strulov, E. Z. Zimmer, M. Granot, A. Tamir, P. Jakobi, and L. Lowenstein, “Pain catastrophizing, response to experimental heat stimuli, and post-cesarean section pain,” Journal of Pain, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 273–279, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  59. C. R. Chapman, J. Davis, G. W. Donaldson, J. Naylor, and D. Winchester, “Postoperative pain trajectories in chronic pain patients undergoing surgery: the effects of chronic opioid pharmacotherapy on acute pain,” Journal of Pain, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1240–1246, 2011. View at Google Scholar