Pain Research and Treatment / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Clinical Study

Opioid Use in Fibromyalgia Is Associated with Negative Health Related Measures in a Prospective Cohort Study

Table 1

Demographic and disease related information at baseline for 131 patients stratified according to opioid use at followup.

AllGroup 1Group 2
Opioid usersNonopioid users

Gender
 Female 1204080
 Male1138
Age, mean ± SD50 ± 1050 ± 1049 ± 10
Dur. pain, mean ± SD11 ± 1011 ± 1011 ± 10
Education
High school, (%)15 (11)5 (12)10 (11)
 High school, (%)43 (33)14 (33)29 (33)
 College, (%)38 (29)16 (37)22 (25)
 University, (%)35 (27)8 (19)27 (31)
Marital status
 Single, (%)26 (20)5 (12)21 (24)
 Married, (%)83 (63)32 (74)51 (58)
 Divorced, (%)15 (11)4 (9)11 (13)
 Widowed, (%)5 (4)1 (2)4 (5)
Employed, (%)39 (30)11 (26)28 (32)
Disability, (%)42 (32)16 (37)26 (30)
Medications,   ± SD 2.3 ± 1.32.6 ± 1.32.2 ± 1.3
Pain
 Pain VAS, mean ± SD6.4 ± 2.3 6.9 ± 2.26.2 ± 2.4
 MPQ, mean ± SD42 ± 15 46 ± 15*40 ± 15
Function
 Patient global VAS, mean ± SD6.4 ± 2.4 7.1 ± 2.3*6.1 ± 2.4
 FIQ, mean ± SD66 ± 18 72 ± 15**63 ± 18
 HAQ, mean ± SD1.14 ± 0.66 1.23 ± 0.67 1.09 ± 0.65
Mood
 AIMS anx, mean ± SD6.1 ± 1.9 6.4 ± 1.76.0 ± 2.0
 AIMS dep, mean ± SD5.0 ± 1.6 5.2 ± 1.44.9 ± 1.7
 PCS, mean ± SD29 ± 12 30 ± 1328 ± 12

Group 1 baseline versus Group 2 baseline: * , ** .
SD: standard deviation, VAS: Visual Analog Scale, MPQ: McGill Pain Questionnaire, FIQ: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, HAQ: Health Assessment Questionnaire, AIMS: Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale, and PCS: Pain Catastrophizing Scale.