Pain Research and Treatment / 2014 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Perioperative Multimodal Anesthesia Using Regional Techniques in the Aging Surgical Patient

Table 3

Definitions of altered mental status

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD)Persistent deterioration of cognitive performance after surgery most often resolves within 3 months but can last longer

DeliriumDecline in mental status, reduced awareness, cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction, disorientation, and memory impairment

Altered pharmacodynamicsIncreased effect of drug on the body; for example, exaggerated respiratory and cardiovascular depression from narcotics

StrokeDecreased blood supply to the brain due to ischemia or hemorrhage. There is an increased risk in the elderly, because of autonomic dysfunction, decreased baroreceptor sensitivity, and loss of vascular elasticity

HyperalgesiaParadoxical increase in pain intensity, new pain complaints, and altered pain characteristics while receiving treatment with opioids

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