Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Pain Research and Treatment
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1486010, 6 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1486010
Research Article

Palmitoylethanolamide in the Treatment of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome

1Department of MESVA, School of Medicine, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy
2Paolo Procacci Foundation, Rome, Italy
3Department of Internal Medicine, Rheumatology and Medical Pain Therapy, Perugia University School of Medicine, Terni, Italy
4Department of Neurosurgery, “Santa Maria” General Hospital, Terni, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Giustino Varrassi

Received 1 February 2017; Revised 7 April 2017; Accepted 16 May 2017; Published 10 August 2017

Academic Editor: Donald A. Simone

Copyright © 2017 Antonella Paladini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. M. Long, “Failed back surgery syndrome,” Neurosurgery Clinics of North America, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 899–919, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  2. C.-W. Chan and P. Peng, “Failed back surgery syndrome,” Pain Medicine, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 577–606, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. W. Fritsch, J. Heisel, and S. Rupp, “The failed back surgery syndrome: reasons, intraoperative findings, and long-term results: a report of 182 operative treatments,” Spine, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 626–633, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. D. Markman, B. T. Kress, M. Frazer, R. Hanson, V. Kogan, and J. H. Huang, “Screening for neuropathic characteristics in failed back surgery syndromes: challenges for guiding treatment,” Pain Medicine (United States), vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 520–530, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. D. Guyer, M. Patterson, and D. D. Ohnmeiss, “Failed back surgery syndrome: Diagnostic evaluation,” Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 534–543, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. M. McCracken and D. C. Turk, “Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral treatment for chronic pain: outcome, predictors of outcome, and treatment process,” Spine, vol. 27, no. 22, pp. 2564–2573, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Hussain and M. Erdek, “Interventional pain management for failed back surgery syndrome,” Pain Practice, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 64–78, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Z. Baber and M. A. Erdek, “Failed back surgery syndrome: Current perspectives,” Journal of Pain Research, vol. 9, pp. 979–987, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. B. Khosravi, S. Azemati, and M. A. Sahmeddini, “Gabapentin versus naproxen in the management of failed back surgery syndrome; a randomized controlled trial,” Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 31–37, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Canos, L. Cort, Y. Fernández et al., “Preventive analgesia with pregabalin in neuropathic pain from "failed back surgery syndrome": assessment of sleep quality and disability,” Pain Medicine (United States), vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 344–352, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Varrassi, F. Marinangeli, A. Piroli, S. Coaccioli, and A. Paladini, “Strong analgesics: Working towards an optimal balance between efficacy and side effects,” European Journal of Pain, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 340–342, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Ren and R. Dubner, “Interactions between the immune and nervous systems in pain,” Nature Medicine, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1267–1276, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Calvo, J. M. Dawes, and D. L. Bennett, “The role of the immune system in the generation of neuropathic pain,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 629–642, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. Sacerdote, S. Franchi, S. Moretti et al., “Cytokine modulation is necessary for efficacious treatment of experimental neuropathic pain,” Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 202–211, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. MacHelska, “Dual peripheral actions of immune cells in neuropathic pain,” Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 11–24, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. I. Kazuhide and T. Makoto, “Microglia and neuropathic pain,” Glia, vol. 57, no. 14, pp. 1469–1479, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Granberg, C. J. Fowler, and S. O. P. Jacobsson, “Effects of the cannabimimetic fatty acid derivatives 2-arachidonoylglycerol, anandamide, palmitoylethanolamide and methanandamide upon IgE-dependent antigen-induced β-hexosaminidase, serotonin and TNF α release from rat RBL-2H3 basophilic leukaemia cells,” Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, vol. 364, no. 1, pp. 66–73, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Fusco, S. D. Skaper, S. Coaccioli, G. Varrassi, and A. Paladini, “Degenerative joint diseases and neuroinflammation,” Pain Practice, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 522–532, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. I. Bettoni, F. Comelli, A. Colombo, P. Bonfanti, and B. Costa, “Non-neuronal cell modulation relieves neuropathic pain: efficacy of the endogenous lipid palmitoylethanolamide,” CNS and Neurological Disorders: Drug Targets, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 34–44, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. Varrassi, M. Fusco, S. Coaccioli, and A. Paladini, “Chronic pain and neurodegenerative processes in elderly people,” Pain Practice, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1–3, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Alhouayek and G. G. Muccioli, “Harnessing the anti-inflammatory potential of palmitoylethanolamide,” Drug Discovery Today, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1632–1639, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Lo Verme, J. Fu, G. Astarita et al., “The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α mediates the anti-inflammatory actions of palmitoylethanolamide,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 15–19, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. Di Cesare Mannelli, G. D'Agostino, A. Pacini et al., “Palmitoylethanolamide is a disease-modifying agent in peripheral neuropathy: pain relief and neuroprotection share a PPAR-alpha-mediated mechanism,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2013, Article ID 328797, 12 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Gatti, M. Lazzari, V. Gianfelice, A. Di Paolo, E. Sabato, and A. F. Sabato, “Palmitoylethanolamide in the Treatment of Chronic Pain Caused by Different Etiopathogenesis,” Pain Medicine (United States), vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1121–1130, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. Desio, “Aliamides and duloxetina in the treatment of low back pain,” Pathos, vol. 23, no. 1, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  26. R. Del Giorno, S. Skaper, A. Paladini, G. Varrassi, and S. Coaccioli, “Palmitoylethanolamide in fibromyalgia: results from prospective and retrospective observational studies,” Pain and Therapy, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 169–178, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. S. Rao, Y. Song, F. Peddie, and A. M. Evans, “Particle size reduction to the nanometer range: a promising approach to improve buccal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs,” International journal of nanomedicine, vol. 6, pp. 1245–1251, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Sareen, G. Mathew, and L. Joseph, “Improvement in solubility of poor water-soluble drugs by solid dispersion,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 12–17, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. D. Impellizzeri, G. Bruschetta, M. Cordaro et al., “Micronized/ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide displays superior oral efficacy compared to nonmicronized palmitoylethanolamide in a rat model of inflammatory pain,” Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 11, no. 1, article 136, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. G. A. Hawker, S. Mian, T. Kendzerska, and M. French, “Measures of adult pain: Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS Pain), Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS Pain), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale (CPGS), Short Form-36 Bodily Pain Scale (SF-36 BPS), and measure of Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP),” Arthritis Care & Research, vol. 63, supplement 11, pp. S240–S252, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. I. Steigerwald, M. Müller, A. Davies et al., “Effectiveness and safety of tapentadol prolonged release for severe, chronic low back pain with or without a neuropathic pain component: Results of an open-label, phase 3b study,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 911–936, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. Gálvez, M. Schäfer, G. Hans, D. Falke, and I. Steigerwald, “Tapentadol prolonged release versus strong opioids for severe, chronic low back pain: Results of an open-label, phase 3b study,” Advances in Therapy, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 229–259, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. Baron, E. Martin-Mola, M. Müller, C. Dubois, D. Falke, and I. Steigerwald, “Effectiveness and Safety of Tapentadol Prolonged Release (PR) Versus a Combination of Tapentadol PR and Pregabalin for the Management of Severe, Chronic Low Back Pain With a Neuropathic Component: A Randomized, Double-blind, Phase 3b Study,” Pain Practice, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 455–470, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. Baron, A. Binder, N. Attal, R. Casale, A. H. Dickenson, and R.-D. Treede, “Neuropathic low back pain in clinical practice,” European Journal of Pain (United Kingdom), vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 861–873, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. Christoph, J. De Vry, K. Schiene, R. J. Tallarida, and T. M. Tzschentke, “Synergistic antihypersensitive effects of pregabalin and tapentadol in a rat model of neuropathic pain,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 666, no. 1-3, pp. 72–79, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. Aloe, A. Leon, and R. Levi-Montalcini, “A proposed autacoid mechanism controlling mastocyte behaviour,” Agents and Actions, vol. 39, 1, pp. C145–C147, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. B. Costa, F. Comelli, I. Bettoni, M. Colleoni, and G. Giagnoni, “The endogenous fatty acid amide, palmitoylethanolamide, has anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects in a murine model of neuropathic pain: involvement of CB1, TRPV1 and PPARγ receptors and neurotrophic factors,” Pain, vol. 139, no. 3, pp. 541–550, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Calignano, G. La Rana, A. Giuffrida, and D. Piomelli, “Control of pain initiation by endogenous cannabinoids,” Nature, vol. 394, no. 6690, pp. 277–281, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Z. Helyes, J. Németh, M. Thán, K. Bölcskei, E. Pintér, and J. Szolcsányi, “Inhibitory effect of anandamide on resiniferatoxin-induced sensory neuropeptide release in vivo and neuropathic hyperalgesia in the rat,” Life Sciences, vol. 73, no. 18, pp. 2345–2353, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. G. Guida, M. De Martino, A. De Fabiani, L. Canteri, A. Alexandre, G. Vassallo et al., “La Palmitoiletanolamide (Normast®) en el dolor neuropático crónico por lumbociatalgia de tipo compresivo:estudio clinico multícéntrico,” Dolor, vol. 25, 35, no. 1, p. 42, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. A. Truini, A. Biasiotta, G. Di Stefano et al., “Palmitoylethanolamide restores myelinated-fibre function in patients with chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy,” CNS & Neurological Disorders-Drug Targets, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 916–920, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Paladini, M. Fusco, T. Cenacchi, C. Schievano, A. Piroli, and G. Varrassi, “Palmitoylethanolamide, a special food for medical purposes, in the treatment of chronic pain: A pooled data meta-analysis,” Pain Physician, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 11–24, 2016. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus