Table 1: Demographical and clinical characteristics of participants.

VariablesCategories (Number of participants)


Age18 – 30 years old31 – 45 years old

Type of dental facilityCommunity Health Center (Puskesmas)Private Dental Practice / Private Dental Clinic

Types of orofacial pain123456789

of orofacial pain: (1) toothache; (2) pain in the jaw joint/s; (3) pain in area just in front of the ear/s; (4) pain in or around the eyes; (5) pain when opening the mouth wide; (6) shooting pains in the jaw joint when chewing food; (7) pain and in around the temples; (8) tenderness of muscles at the side of the face; and (9) a prolonged burning sensation in the tongue or other parts of the mouth.