Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Plastic Surgery International
Volume 2013, Article ID 704589, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/704589
Review Article

Sensory Recovery Outcome after Digital Nerve Repair in Relation to Different Reconstructive Techniques: Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

1Department of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675 Munich, Germany
2Institut für Medizinische Statistik und Epidemiologie, Medizinische Biometrie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675 Munich, Germany
3Institut für Klinische Radiologie, Campus Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Marchioninistraße 15, 81377 München, Germany

Received 27 March 2013; Accepted 30 June 2013

Academic Editor: Georg M. Huemer

Copyright © 2013 Felix J. Paprottka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Noble, C. A. Munro, V. S. S. V. Prasad, and R. Midha, “Analysis of upper and lower extremity peripheral nerve injuries in a population of patients with multiple injuries,” Journal of Trauma—Injury, Infection and Critical Care, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 116–122, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. Renner, F. Cserkuti, and I. Hankiss, “Late results after nerve transplantation on the upper extremities,” Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 13–18, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. A. Lohmeyer, B. Sommer, F. Siemers, and P. Mailänder, “Nerve injuries of the upper extremity-expected outcome and clinical examination,” Plastic Surgical Nursing, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 88–93, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. B. Jaquet, A. J. M. Luijsterburg, S. Kalmijn, P. D. L. Kuypers, A. Hofman, and S. E. R. Hovius, “Median, ulnar, and combined median-ulnar nerve injuries: functional outcome and return to productivity,” Journal of Trauma—Injury, Infection and Critical Care, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 687–692, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. E. Rosberg, K. S. Carlsson, S. Höjgård, B. Lindgren, G. Lundborg, and L. B. Dahlin, “Injury to the human median and ulnar nerves in the forearm—analysis of costs for treatment and rehabilitation of 69 patients in Southern Sweden,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 35–39, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. W. Smith, “Microsurgery of peripheral nerves,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 33, pp. 317–329, 1964. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. X. Cao, H. Shidao, and J. Yu, “Experimental study on the collateral sprouting after end-to-side anastomosis of nerve trunk,” Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 321–324, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Frey and P. Giovanoli, “End-to-side neurorrhaphy of sensory nerves,” European Journal of Plastic Surgery, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 85–88, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. Pelissier, R. Riahi, V. Casoli, D. Martin, and J. Baudet, “Terminal-lateral nerve anastomoses. Preliminary clinical report of two cases,” Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthetique, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 129–133, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  10. P. Voche and D. Ouattara, “End-to-side neurorrhaphy for defects of palmar sensory digital nerves,” The British Journal of Plastic Surgery, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 239–244, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Artiaco, P. Tos, L. G. Conforti, S. Geuna, and B. Battiston, “Termino-lateral nerve suture in lesions of the digital nerves: clinical experience and literature review,” Journal of Hand Surgery: European Volume, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 109–114, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. M. Landwehrs and P. Brüser, “Clinical results of terminolateral neurorrhaphy in digital nerves,” Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 318–321, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. J. A. Lohmeyer, S. Zimmermann, B. Sommer, H. G. Machens, T. Lange, and P. Mailänder, “Bridging peripheral nerve defects by means of nerve conduits,” Chirurg, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 142–147, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. A. Lohmeyer, F. Siemers, H. G. Machens, and P. Mailänder, “The clinical use of artificial nerve conduits for digital nerve repair: a prospective cohort study and literature review,” Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 55–61, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. X. Jiang, S. H. Lim, H. Q. Mao, and S. Y. Chew, “Current applications and future perspectives of artificial nerve conduits,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 223, no. 1, pp. 86–101, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. Schlosshauer, L. Dreesmann, H. Schaller, and N. Sinis, “Synthetic nerve guide implants in humans: a comprehensive survey,” Neurosurgery, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 740–747, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. A. Lohmeyer and H. G. Machens, “Basics and current approaches to tissue engineering in peripheral nerve reconstruction,” Neurosurgery Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 101–109, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. R. Sanes, L. M. Marshall, and U. J. McMahan, “Reinnervation of muscle fiber basal lamina after removal of myofibers. Differentiation of regenerating axons at original synaptic sites,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 176–198, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. W. Norris, M. A. Glasby, J. M. Gattuso, and R. E. M. Bowden, “Peripheral nerve repair in humans using muscle autografts. A new technique,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery B, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 530–533, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. A. Brunelli, B. Battiston, A. Vigasio, G. Brunelli, and D. Marocolo, “Bridging nerve defects with combined skeletal muscle and vein conduits,” Microsurgery, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 247–251, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. F. Meek, A. S. P. Varejão, and S. Geuna, “Use of skeletal muscle tissue in peripheral nerve repair: review of the literature,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 10, no. 7-8, pp. 1027–1036, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Tamai, Y. Hori, A. Fukui, and T. Shimizu, “Finger replantation,” International Surgery, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 9–12, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. S. Cho, B. D. Rinker, R. V. Weber et al., “Functional outcome following nerve repair in the upper extremity using processed nerve allograft,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 2340–2349, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. B. He, Q. Zhu, Y. Chai et al., “Safety and efficacy evaluation of a human acellular nerve graft as a digital nerve scaffold: a prospective, multicentre controlled clinical trial,” Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. L. T. Glickman and S. E. Mackinnon, “Sensory recovery following digital replantation,” Microsurgery, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 236–242, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. E. Nemethi, “Repair of nerve injuries in the hand,” California Medicine, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 35–38, 1956. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. E. Mackinnon and A. L. Dellon, Surgery of the Peripheral Nerve, Thieme Medical Publishers, New York, NY, USA, 1988.
  28. W. B. Highet and F. K. Sanders, “The effects of stretching nerves after suture,” The British Medical Bulletin, vol. 30, no. 120, pp. 355–369, 1943. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. G. Schwarzer, “meta: Meta-Analysis with R,” R package version 1.6-1, 2010.
  30. W. Viechtbauer, “Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor,” Journal of Statistical Software, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 1–48, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Freeman and J. W. Tukey, “Transformations related to the angular and the square root,” Annals of Mathematical Statistics, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 607–611, 1950. View at Google Scholar
  32. R. DerSimonian and N. Laird, “Meta-analysis in clinical trials,” Controlled Clinical Trials, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 177–188, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. P. T. Higgins and S. G. Thompson, “Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis,” Statistics in Medicine, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1539–1558, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. V. Vahvanen, L. Gripenberg, and P. Nuutinen, “Peripheral nerve injuries of the hand in children. A follow-up study of 38 patients,” Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 49–51, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. J. Sullivan, “Results of digital neurorrhaphy in adults,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 41–44, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. T. W. Chiu and B. Strauch, “A prospective clinical evaluation of autogenous vein grafts used as a nerve conduit for distal sensory nerve defects of 3 cm or less,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 928–934, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. H. Pereira, R. E. M. Bowden, J. M. Gattuso, and R. W. Norris, “Comparison of results of repair of digital nerves by denatured muscle grafts and end-to-end sutures,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 519–523, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Altissimi, G. B. Mancini, and A. Azzara, “Results of primary repair of digital nerves,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 546–547, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. P. Chow and C. Ng, “Can a divided digital nerve on one side of the finger be left unrepaired?” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 629–630, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Eisenschenk and M. Lehnert, “Sensory recovery after finger replantation,” Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 191–195, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  41. M. F. Vertruyen, M. A. Burgeon, B. S. Dachy, and R. E. Ley, “Sensory recovery after microsurgical repair of digital nerves,” Acta Chirurgica Belgica, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 325–328, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. B. E. Elias, Y. Tropet, J. M. Brientini, and P. Vichard, “Results of primary repair of digital nerve injuries,” Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Superieur, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 107–112, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. W. Z. Wang, G. M. Crain, W. Baylis, and T. M. Tsai, “Outcome of digital nerve injuries in adults,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 138–143, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. E. Tadjalli, F. H. McIntyre, K. N. Dolynchuk, and K. A. Murray, “Digital nerve repair: relationship between severity of injury and sensibility recovery,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 36–40, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. K. N. Malizos, Z. H. Dailiana, E. A. Anastasiou, I. Sarmas, and P. N. Soucacos, “Neuromas and gaps of sensory nerves of the hand: management using vein conduits,” The American Journal of Orthopedics, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 481–485, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Schenker, M. K. O. Burstedt, M. Wiberg, and R. S. Johansson, “Precision grip function after hand replantation and digital nerve injury,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 706–716, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. P. Mailänder, A. Berger, and K. Ruhe, “Results following primary nerve sutures,” Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 342–343, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  48. B. Sommer, Regenerationsergebnisse nach Nervenverletzungen an der oberen Extremität—Einflussfaktoren und die Optimierung klinischer Untersuchungsmethoden [dissertation], 2008.
  49. J. R. Tenny and R. C. Lewis, “Digital nerve-grafting for traumatic defects,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 66, no. 9, pp. 1375–1379, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. A. Nunley, M. R. Ugino, R. D. Goldner, N. Regan, and J. R. Urbaniak, “Use of the anterior branch of the medial antebranchial cutaneous nerve as a graft for the repair of defects of the digital nerve,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 563–567, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. Dumontier, M. Kloos, F. Dap, and M. Merle, “Nerve graft of collateral branches of fingers. Report of a series of 16 reviewed cases,” Revue de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Reparatrice de l'Appareil Moteur, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 311–316, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. Inoue, T. Ogino, and H. Tsutida, “Digital nerve grafting using the terminal branch of posterior interosseous nerve: a report of three cases,” Hand Surgery, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 305–307, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. F. Schonauer, S. T. Scafati, I. La Rusca, and G. Molea, “Digital nerve reconstruction by multiple Y-shaped nerve grafts at the metacarpophalangeal joint level,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. e13–e16, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. K. Chiu, E. S. Ng, and T. S. Ahmad, “The use of a trifurcation of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve for digital nerve grafting,” Journal of Hand Surgery: European Volume, vol. 34, no. 4, p. 540, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. F. E. Karabekmez, A. Duymaz, and S. L. Moran, “Early clinical outcomes with the use of decellularized nerve allograft for repair of sensory defects within the hand,” Hand, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 245–249, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. C. Laveaux, J. Pauchot, L. Obert, V. Choserot, and Y. Tropet, “Retrospective monocentric comparative evaluation by sifting of vein grafts versus nerve grafts in palmar digital nerves defects. Report of 32 cases,” Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthetique, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 19–34, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. Kracht, Klinische Nachuntersuchung und Ergebnisse autologer Transplantate am peripheren Nerven [dissertation], 1993.
  58. S. E. Mackinnon and A. L. Dellon, “Clinical nerve reconstruction with a bioabsorbable polyglycolic acid tube,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 419–424, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. R. A. Weber, W. C. Breidenbach, R. E. Brown, M. E. Jabaley, and D. P. Mass, “A randomized prospective study of polyglycolic acid conduits for digital nerve reconstruction in humans,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 106, no. 5, pp. 1036–1045, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Y. Inada, S. Morimoto, Y. Takakura, and T. Nakamura, “Regeneration of peripheral nerve gaps with a polyglycolic acid-collagen tube,” Neurosurgery, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 640–646, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. B. D. Bushnell, A. D. McWilliams, G. B. Whitener, and T. M. Messer, “Early clinical experience with collagen nerve tubes in digital nerve repair,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1081–1087, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. L. Thomsen, P. Bellemere, T. Loubersac, E. Gaisne, P. Poirier, and F. Chaise, “Treatment by collagen conduit of painful post-traumatic neuromas of the sensitive digital nerve: a retrospective study of 10 cases,” Chirurgie de la Main, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 255–262, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. L. Dellon and C. T. Maloney Jr., “Salvage of sensation in a hallux-to-thumb transfer by nerve tube reconstruction,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1495–1498, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. B. Battiston, S. Geuna, M. Ferrero, and P. Tos, “Nerve repair by means of tubulization: literature review and personal clinical experience comparing biological and synthetic conduits for sensory nerve repair,” Microsurgery, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 258–267, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. R. L. Walton, R. E. Brown, W. E. Matory Jr., G. L. Borah, and J. L. Dolph, “Autogenous vein graft repair of digital nerve defects in the finger: a retrospective clinical study,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 944–949, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. B. Tang, “Vein conduits with interposition of nerve tissue for peripheral nerve defects,” Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. G. Risitano, G. Cavallaro, T. Merrino, S. Coppolin, and F. Ruggeri, “Clinical results and thoughts on sensory nerve repair by autologous vein graft in emergency hand reconstruction,” Chirurgie de la Main, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 194–197, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. Y. H. Lee and S. J. Shieh, “Secondary nerve reconstruction using vein conduit grafts for neglected digital nerve injuries,” Microsurgery, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 436–440, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. S. Calder and R. M. R. McAllister, “Interpreting the results of unilateral digital nerve repair,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 797–799, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. D. Kosutic, I. Krajnc, B. Pejkovic, and L. Šolman, “Autogenous digital artery graft for repair of digital nerve defects in emergency hand reconstruction: two-year follow-up,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 62, no. 4, p. 553, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. Ignazio and V. Adolfo, “Muscle-in-vein nerve guide for secondary reconstruction in digital nerve lesions,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1418–1426, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. S. Yamauchi, S. Nomura, M. Yoshimura, T. Ueno, Y. Iwai, and K. Shimamura, “Recovery of sensation in replanted digits—time of recovery and degree of two-point discrimination,” Journal of Microsurgery, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 206–213, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Yoshimura, S. Nomura, T. Ueno, S. Yamauchi, Y. Iwai, and K. Shimamura, “Evaluation of digital replantation,” Acta Chirurgica Belgica, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 161–170, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. K. Ikeda, S. Yamauchi, F. Hashimoto, K. Tomita, and M. Yoshimura, “Digital replantation in children: a long-term follow-up study,” Microsurgery, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 261–264, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. U. Ahčan, Z. M. Arnež, M. Janko, and D. Dovšak, “Regeneration of sudomotor and sensory nerve fibres after digital replantation and microneurovascular toe-to-hand transfer,” The British Journal of Plastic Surgery, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 227–235, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. C. Dos Remédios, P. Leps, and M. Schoofs, “Results of 46 digital replantations. With a minimal follow-up of one year,” Chirurgie de la Main, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 236–242, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. I. Walaszek and A. Zyluk, “Long term follow-up after finger replantation,” Journal of Hand Surgery: European Volume, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 59–64, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. A. C. J. Ruijs, J. Jaquet, S. Kalmijn, H. Giele, and S. E. R. Hovius, “Median and ulnar nerve injuries: a meta-analysis of predictors of motor and sensory recovery after modern microsurgical nerve repair,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 484–494, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. G. Lundborg, “A 25-year perspective of peripheral nerve surgery: evolving neuroscientific concepts and clinical significance,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 391–414, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S. E. Mackinnon, “New directions in peripheral nerve surgery,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 257–273, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. G. Lundborg, “Brain plasticity and hand surgery: an overview,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 242–252, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. B. Rosén and G. Lundborg, “The long term recovery curve in adults after median or ulnar nerve repair: a reference interval,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 196–200, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. A. Lohmeyer, H. G. Machens, and A. Berger, “Current aspects of tissue engineering in peripheral nerve reconstruction,” in Tissue Engineering Research Trends, G. N. Greco, Ed., pp. 115–140, Nova Science, New York, NY, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  84. C. Barrios, S. Amillo, J. de Pablos, and J. Canadell, “Secondary repair of ulnar nerve injury. 44 cases followed for 2 years,” Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 46–49, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. C. Barrios and J. de Pablos, “Surgical management of nerve injuries of the upper extremity in children: a 15-year survey,” Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 641–645, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. N. K. Daoutis, N. E. Gerostathopoulos, D. G. Efstathopoulos, D. P. Misitizis, G. N. Bouchlis, and S. K. Anagnostou, “Microsurgical reconstruction of large nerve defects using autologous nerve grafts,” Microsurgery, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 502–505, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. D. Marsh and N. Barton, “Does the use of the operating microscope improve the results of peripheral nerve suture?” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery B, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 625–630, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. Z. Roganovic, S. Ilic, and M. Savic, “Radial nerve repair using an autologous denatured muscle graft: comparison with outcomes of nerve graft repair,” Acta Neurochirurgica, vol. 149, no. 10, pp. 1033–1038, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. J. Haase, P. Bjerre, and K. Simesen, “Median and ulnar nerve transections treated with microsurgical interfascicular cable grafting with autogenous sural nerve,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 73–84, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. S. J. M. Jongen and R. van Twisk, “Results of primary repair of ulnar and median nerve injuries at the wrist: an evaluation of sensibility and motor recovery,” Netherlands Journal of Surgery, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 86–89, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. A. D. Widgerow, “Full-house/spaghetti wrist injuries. Analysis of results,” South African Journal of Surgery, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 6–10, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. B. Rosen, G. Lundborg, L. B. Dahlin, J. Holmberg, and B. Karlson, “Nerve repair: correlation of restitution of functional sensibility with specific cognitive capacities,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 452–458, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. D. E. Kalomiri, P. N. Soucacos, and A. E. Beris, “Nerve grafting in peripheral nerve microsurgery of the upper extremity,” Microsurgery, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 506–511, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. J. B. Jaquet, S. Kalmijn, P. D. L. Kuypers, A. Hofman, J. Passchier, and S. E. R. Hovius, “Early psychological stress after forearm nerve injuries: a predictor for long-term functional outcome and return to productivity,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 82–90, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. A. Berger and H. Millesi, “Nerve grafting,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 133, pp. 49–55, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. R. V. Weber and S. E. Mackinnon, “Bridging the neural gap,” Clinics in Plastic Surgery, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 605–616, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. B. J. Pfister, T. Gordon, J. R. Loverde, A. S. Kochar, S. E. Mackinnon, and D. K. Cullen, “Biomedical engineering strategies for peripheral nerve repair: surgical applications, state of the art, and future challenges,” Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–124, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. B. S. Lutz, “The role of a barrier between two nerve fascicles in adjacency after transection and repair of a peripheral nerve trunk,” Neurological Research, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 363–370, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. B. Rinker and J. Y. Liau, “A prospective randomized study comparing woven polyglycolic acid and autogenous vein conduits for reconstruction of digital nerve gaps,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 775–781, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. D. T. W. Chiu, “Autogenous venous nerve conduits: a review,” Hand Clinics, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 667–671, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. L. B. Dahlin and G. Lundborg, “Use of tubes in peripheral nerve repair,” Neurosurgery Clinics of North America, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 341–352, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. L. B. Dahlin, L. Anagnostaki, and G. Lundborg, “Tissue response to silicone tubes used to repair human median and ulnar nerves,” Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 29–34, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. G. Lundborg, B. Rosén, L. Dahlin, J. Holmberg, and I. Rosén, “Tubular repair of the median or ulnar nerve in the human forearm: a 5-year follow-up,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 100–107, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. P. M. Waters and J. T. Schwartz, “Posterior interosseous nerve: an anatomic study of potential nerve grafts,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 743–745, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus