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Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 3072135, 6 pages
Research Article

Cryosurgery as Additional Treatment in Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumors

Department of Orthopedics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands

Received 22 August 2016; Revised 1 November 2016; Accepted 4 December 2016

Academic Editor: R. Lor Randall

Copyright © 2016 F. G. M. Verspoor et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Introduction. Tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TGCT) emerge from the synovium and can behave aggressively. Surgical resection is the standard treatment. However, up to half of the patients with diffuse type show recurrences. Several additional treatments have been applied to reduce recurrences; none of these treatments was proven to be superior to surgical resection solely. This article describes the results of additional cryosurgery to surgical resection. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively evaluated 141 TGCT patients, between 1999 and 2007. Twelve patients had additional cryosurgery. The knee (), hip (), ankle (), and elbow () were affected. Primary outcome variables were treatment indications, recurrences, and complications. Results. Indications for additional cryosurgery were extended disease, bone involvement, and locations that are difficult to surgically get disease-free such as cruciate ligaments. Five patients had recurrent disease, all of which had prior treatments. None of the primary treated patients had recurrent disease. One patient had a deep infection. Discussion. Cryosurgery may serve as an additional treatment for diffuse TCGT in selected cases. However, because of the small number of patients and the heterogeneous group we could not prove an advantage of additional cryosurgery over surgical resection only. Cryosurgery should be considered for further evaluation in a prospective study. If there is any effect it would be helpful, especially in patients with multiple TGCT recurrences.