Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 576369, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/576369
Research Article

Gender Differences in Remission and Recovery of Schizophrenic and Schizoaffective Patients: Preliminary Results of a Prospective Cohort Study

Section of Psychiatry, Department of Public Health, University of Cagliari, Liguria Street 13, 09127 Cagliari, Italy

Received 10 October 2011; Accepted 18 November 2011

Academic Editor: Susana Ochoa

Copyright © 2012 Bernardo Carpiniello et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Afifi, “Gender differences in mental health,” Singapore Medical Journal, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 385–391, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H. Häfner, “Gender differences in schizophrenia,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 28, supplement 2, pp. 17–54, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Š. Ivezić and N. John, “Gender and shizoprenia,” Psychiatria Danubina, vol. 21, supplement 1, pp. 106–110, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  4. F. Pinna, V. Mattana, and B. Carpiniello, “Schizophrenia spectrum disorders and sex differences: results of a study on clinical and therapeutical aspects in an outpatient sample,” Italian Journal of Psychopathology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 417–427, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  5. S. M. Cotton, M. Lambert, B. G. Schimmelmann et al., “Gender differences in premorbid, entry, treatment, and outcome characteristics in a treated epidemiological sample of 661 patients with first episode psychosis,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 114, no. 1–3, pp. 17–24, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. A. Køster, M. Lajer, A. Lindhardt, and B. Rosenbaum, “Gender differences in first episode psychosis,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 940–946, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. A. Thorup, L. Petersen, P. Jeppesen et al., “Gender differences in young adults with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders at baseline in the Danish OPUS study,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 195, no. 5, pp. 396–405, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. M. V. Seeman, “Women and schizophrenia,” Medscape Women's Health, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 2, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. H. Nasser, N. Walders, and J. H. Jenkins, “The experience of schizophrenia: what's gender got to do with it? A critical review of the current status of research on schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 351–362, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Leung and P. Chue, “Sex differences in schizophrenia, a review of the literature,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 101, no. 401, pp. 3–38, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  11. J. Usall, E. Busquets, S. Araya, S. Ochoa, and A. Gost, “Gender differences in schizophrenia. A literature review,” Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 178–185, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. V. A. Morgan, D. J. Castle, and A. V. Jablensky, “Do women express and experience psychosis differently from men? Epidemiological evidence from the Australian National Study of Low Prevalence (Psychotic) Disorders,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 74–82, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. N. J. Preston, K. G. Orr, R. Date, L. Nolan, and D. J. Castle, “Gender differences in premorbid adjustment of patients with first episode psychosis,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 285–290, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Addington, S. van Mastrigt, and D. Addington, “Patterns of premorbid functioning in first-episode psychosis: initial presentation,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 62, no. 1-2, pp. 23–30, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. L. Silverstein, G. Mavrolefteros, and D. Close, “Premorbid adjustment and neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 157–165, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Usall, S. Ochoa, S. Araya, and M. Márquez, “Gender differences and outcome in schizophrenia: a 2-year follow-up study in a large community sample,” European Psychiatry, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 282–284, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. R. Marvin, C. Rosen, J. L. Reilly, H. Solari, and J. A. Sweeney, “Diagnostic and gender differences in first episode psychosis,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 33, p. 241, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  18. H. Naqvi, M. M. Kahn, and A. Faizi, “Gender differences in age at onset of schizophrenia,” Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 345–348, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Barajas, I. Baños, S. Ochoa et al., “Gender differences in incipient psychosis,” European Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 176–194, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. N. Hayashi, Y. Igarashi, M. Yamashina, and K. Suda, “Is there a gender difference in a factorial structure of the positive and negative syndrome scale? A test by structural equation modeling,” Psychopathology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 28–35, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Usall, S. Ochoa, S. Araya, A. Gost, E. Busquets, and Grupo NEDES, “Sintomología y género e la esquizofrenia,” Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 219–223, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  22. M. A. Roy, M. Maziade, A. Labbé, and C. Mérette, “Male gender is associated with deficit schizophrenia: a meta-analysis,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 47, no. 2-3, pp. 141–147, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. A. C. Altamura, R. Bassetti, S. Bignotti, R. Pioli, and E. Mundo, “Clinical variables related to suicide attempts in schizophrenic patients: a retrospective study,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 47–55, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. A. Regier, M. E. Farmer, D. S. Rae et al., “Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse. Results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 264, no. 19, pp. 2511–2518, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. L. Ayuso-Gutiérrez and J. M. D. R. Vega, “Factors influencing relapse in the long-term course of schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 28, no. 2-3, pp. 199–206, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. K. Larsen, I. Melle, B. Auestad et al., “Substance abuse in first-episode non-affective psychosis,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 88, no. 1–3, pp. 55–62, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. J. Rabinowitz, E. J. Bromet, J. Lavelle, G. Carlson, B. Kovasznay, and J. E. Schwartz, “Prevalence and severity of substance use disorders and onset of psychosis in first-admission psychotic patients,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1411–1419, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. V. Seeman, “Gender differences in treatment response in schizophrenia,” in Gender and Psychopathology, M. V. Seeman, Ed., pp. 227–251, American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  29. M. V. Seeman, “Gender differences in the prescribing of antipsychotic drugs,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 161, no. 8, pp. 1324–1333, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. N. C. Andreasen, W. T. Carpenter, J. M. Kane, R. A. Lasser, S. R. Marder, and D. R. Weinberger, “Remission in schizophrenia: proposed criteria and rationale for consensus,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 162, no. 3, pp. 441–449, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. S. Galderisi, P. Bucci, A. Üçok, and J. Peuskens, “No gender differences in social outcome in patients suffering from schizophrenia,” European Psychiatry. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  32. L. S. Grossman, M. Harrow, C. Rosen, R. Faull, and G. P. Strauss, “Sex differences in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: a 20-year longitudinal study of psychosis and recovery,” Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 523–529, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. H. Jonsson and A. K. Nyman, “Predicting long-term outcome in schizophrenia,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 342–346, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. Loyd, J. C. Simpson, and M. T. Tsuang, “Are there sex differences in the long-term outcome of schizophrenia? Comparisons with mania, depression, and surgical controls,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 173, no. 11, pp. 643–649, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Opjordsmoen, “Long-term clinical outcome of schizophrenia with special reference to gender differences,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 307–313, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. Novick, J. M. Haro, D. Suarez, E. Vieta, and D. Naber, “Recovery in the outpatient setting: 36-month results from the Schizophrenia Outpatients Health Outcomes (SOHO) study,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 108, no. 1–3, pp. 223–230, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. N. Albert, M. Bertelsen, A. Thorup et al., “Predictors of recovery from psychosis. Analyses of clinical and social factors associated with recovery among patients with first-episode psychosis after 5 years,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 125, no. 2-3, pp. 257–266, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. L. Petersen, A. Thorup, J. Øqhlenschlæger et al., “Predictors of remission and recovery in a first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder sample: 2-year follow-up of the OPUS trial,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 660–670, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. M. Haro, A. Ciudad, J. Alonso et al., “Remission and relapse in the ambulatory treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Outcomes at 3 years,” Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 187–196, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, J. B. W. Williams, and M. Gibbon, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis I Disorders-Research Version (SCID-I, Version 2. 0), Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA, 1996.
  41. M. B. First, M. Gibbon, R. L. Spitzer, J. B. W. Williams, and L. Benjamin, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II, Version 2. 0), Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA, 1996.
  42. S. R. Kay, A. Fiszbein, and L. A. Opler, “The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 261–276, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. M. Haro, S. A. Kamath, S. Ochoa et al., “The Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale: a simple instrument to measure the diversity of symptoms present in schizophrenia,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 107, no. 416, pp. 16–23, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  44. P. L. Morosini, L. Magliano, L. Brambilla, S. Ugolini, and R. Pioli, “Development, reliability and acceptability of a new version of the DSM-IV Social Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) to assess routine social functioning,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 323–329, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. Naber, S. Moritz, M. Lambert et al., “Improvement of schizophrenic patients' subjective well-being under atypical antipsychotic drugs,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 50, no. 1-2, pp. 79–88, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. S. M. Skevington, M. Lotfy, and K. A. O'Connell, “The World Health Organization's WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment: psychometric properties and results of the international field trial a report from the WHOQOL group,” Quality of Life Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 299–310, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Jäger, T. Messer, G. Laux et al., “Standardized remission criteria in schizophrenia: descriptive validity and comparability with previously used outcome measures,” Pharmacopsychiatry, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 190–195, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  48. S. Majadas, J. Olivares, J. Galan, and T. Diez, “Prevalence of depression and its relationship with other clinical characteristics in a sample of patients with stable schizophrenia,” Comprehensive Psychiatry. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  49. R. Emsley, B. Chiliza, L. Asmal, and K. Lehloenya, “The concepts of remission and recovery in schizophrenia,” Current Opinion in Psychiatry, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 114–121, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  50. C. Wallace, P. Mullen, P. Burgess, S. Palmer, D. Ruschena, and C. Browne, “Serious criminal offending and mental disorder: case linkage study,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 172, pp. 477–484, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  51. A. Thorup, L. Petersen, P. Jeppesen et al., “Gender differences in young adults with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders at baseline in the Danish OPUS study,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 195, no. 5, pp. 396–405, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  52. W. C. Chang, J. Y. M. Tang, C. L. M. Hui et al., “Gender differences in patients presenting with first-episode psychosis in Hong Kong: a three-year follow up study,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 199–205, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  53. G. Thornicroft, M. Leese, M. Tansella et al., “Gender differences in living with schizophrenia. A cross-sectional European multi-site study,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 57, no. 2-3, pp. 191–200, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. S. Ochoa, J. Usall, J. M. Haro et al., “Comparative study of the needs of patients with schizophrenia,” Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 165–171, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  55. R. Brugnoli, D. Novick, J. M. Haro, D. Suarez, A. Rossi, and S. Frediani, “Incidence and characteristics of remission in schizophrenic patients: analysis of the results of a three year SOHO study in Italy (Schizophrenia Outpatients Health Outcomes),” Italian Journal of Psychopathology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 243–251, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  56. A. Karow, S. Moritza, M. Lambert, D. Schöttle, and D. Naber, “Remitted but still impaired? Symptomatic versus functional remission in patients with schizophrenia,” European Psychiatry. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed