Table of Contents
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 450823, 3 pages
Letter to the Editor

Increasing Prevalence of Unique Mutation Patterns in H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus HA and NA Glycoproteins from Human Infections in Egypt

1Institute of Poultry Diseases, Free Berlin University, Koenigsweg 63-14163 Berlin, Germany
2Animal Health Research Institute, P.O. Box 246-Dokki, Giza-12618, Egypt
3O.I.E. and National Reference Laboratories for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease, Friedrich-Loeffler Institute, Suedufer 10, Isle of Riems, 17493 Greifswald, Germany

Received 16 April 2010; Revised 1 June 2010; Accepted 11 June 2010

Copyright © 2010 El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus (HPAIV) continues to be a candidate of a further influenza virus pandemic. Egypt is the country worst affected by human cases of HPAIV H5N1 infection in 2009. Increased infection of preschool children and decreased mortality rates suggested subtle changes in the epidemiology of the infection. Among other factors, the evolution of several conspicuous viral genetic markers in the HA and NA genes of HPAIV H5N1 viruses of human cases from Egypt and their putative influence on biological virus characteristics described here may contribute to this situation.