Table of Contents
Scholarly Research Exchange
Volume 2008, Article ID 802317, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.3814/2008/802317
Research Article

Sequence and Phylogenetic Analysis of Three Isolates of Avian Influenza H9N2 from Chickens in Southern China

1Department of Biotechnology, Guangxi Veterinary Research Institute, 51You Ai Road, Nanning, Guangxi 530001, China
2Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, University of Connecticut, 61 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3089, USA

Received 27 February 2008; Accepted 7 April 2008

Copyright © 2008 Zhixun Xie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. J. Alexander, “Avian influenza: recent developments,” Veterinary Bulletin, vol. 52, no. 6, 341 pages, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  2. R. G. Webster, W. J. Bean, O. T. Gorman, T. M. Chambers, and Y. Kawaoka, “Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses,” Microbiological Reviews, vol. 56, no. 1, 152 pages, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  3. K. M. Butt, G. J. D. Smith, H. Chen et al., “Human infection with an avian H9N2 influenza A virus in Hong Kong in 2003,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 11, 5760 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  4. Y. J. Guo, S. Krauss, D. A. Senne et al., “Characterization of the pathogenicity of members of the newly established H9N2 influenza virus lineages in Asia,” Virology, vol. 267, no. 2, 279 pages, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  5. H.-J. Kwon, S.-H. Cho, M.-C. Kim, Y.-J. Ahn, and S.-J. Kim, “Molecular epizootiology of recurrent low pathogenic avian influenza by H9N2 subtype virus in Korea,” Avian Pathology, vol. 35, no. 4, 309 pages, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  6. K. S. Li, K. M. Xu, S. M. Peiris et al., “Characterization of H9 subtype influenza viruses from the ducks of southern China: a candidate for the next influenza pandemic in humans?,” Journal of Virology, vol. 77, no. 12, 6988 pages, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. M. N. Matrosovich, S. Krauss, and R. G. Webster, “H9N2 influenza A viruses from poultry in Asia have human virus-like receptor specificity,” Virology, vol. 281, no. 2, 156 pages, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  8. M. Peiris, K. Y. Yuen, C. W. Leung et al., “Human infection with influenza H9N2,” The Lancet, vol. 354, no. 9182, 916 pages, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. Y. K. Choi, H. Ozaki, R. J. Webby et al., “Continuing evolution of H9N2 influenza viruses in southeastern China,” Journal of Virology, vol. 78, no. 16, 8609 pages, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  10. H. Liu, X.-F. Liu, J. Cheng, D. Peng, L. Jia, and Y. Huang, “Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin genes of twenty-six avian influenza viruses of subtype H9N2 isolated from chickens in China during 1996–2001,” Avian Diseases, vol. 47, no. 1, 116 pages, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  11. J.-H. Liu, K. Okazaki, W.-M. Shi, Q.-M. Wu, A. S. Mweene, and H. Kida, “Phylogenetic analysis of neuraminidase gene of H9N2 influenza viruses prevalent in chickens in China during 1995–2002,” Virus Genes, vol. 27, no. 2, 197 pages, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. S. Wang, W.-M. Shi, A. Mweene, H.-L. Wei, G.-R. Bai, and J.-H. Liu, “Genetic analysis of the nonstructural (NS) genes of H9N2 chicken influenza viruses isolated in China during 1998–2002,” Virus Genes, vol. 31, no. 3, 329 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  13. Y. Guan, K. F. Shortridge, S. Krauss et al., “H9N2 influenza viruses possessing H5N1-like internal genomes continue to circulate in poultry in southeastern China,” Journal of Virology, vol. 74, no. 20, 9372 pages, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. Y. P. Lin, M. Shaw, V. Gregory et al., “Avian-to-human transmission of H9N2 subtype influenza A viruses: relationship between H9N2 and H5N1 human isolates,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 17, 9654 pages, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  15. World Health Organization, “A revision of the system of nomenclature for influenza viruses: a WHO memorandum,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 58, no. 4, 585 pages, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  16. Z. Xie, Y. Pang, J. Liu et al., “A multiplex RT-PCR for detection of type A influenza virus and differentiation of avian H5, H7, and H9 hemagglutinin subtypes,” Molecular and Cellular Probes, vol. 20, no. 3-4, 245 pages, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  17. D. A. Steinhauer, “Role of hemagglutinin cleavage for the pathogenicity of influenza virus,” Virology, vol. 258, no. 1, 1 pages, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  18. J.-H. Lu, X.-F. Liu, W.-X. Shao, Y.-L. Liu, D.-P. Wei, and H.-Q. Liu, “Phylogenetic analysis of eight genes of H9N2 subtype influenza virus: a mainland China strain possessing early isolates' genes that have been circulating,” Virus Genes, vol. 31, no. 2, 163 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed