Scholarly Research Exchange

Scholarly Research Exchange / 2009 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2009 |Article ID 789636 | 5 pages | https://doi.org/10.3814/2009/789636

Differential Toxicological Interaction among Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury on MCF 7 Cell Line

Received19 Dec 2008
Revised09 Mar 2009
Accepted12 Apr 2009
Published05 May 2009

Abstract

Evaluation of joint toxic action of metal ion mixtures is one of the priority research areas due to the simultaneous occurrence of metals in the environment and the health risk they posed to humans and the environment as a mixture. Individual and composite mixture acute toxicities of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb), which are among the top eight toxic chemicals, were characterized at varying concentrations. MCF 7 cell lines were exposed to individual and composite mixtures containing the four metal ions in the proportion of their EPA's MCL for 24 hours, and the concentration-response data were generated spectrofluorometrically. Acute toxicities were estimated based on the uptake of fluorescence diacetate dye. Toxicological interactions among the four metals were profiled, based on computed interactive index. Results demonstrated that the toxicity of each of the metal ions was enhanced in the composite mixture, and the metals demonstrated differential interactions in a concentration dependent manner. Lead, the least toxic among the four metals, showed the highest enhancement (23-to 64-fold) in toxicity when in the mixture. Interaction among the four metals was largely additive although there was slight departures form additivity at the two extremes of the concentration range.

References

  1. C. G. Elinder, T. Kjellström, C. Hogstedt, K. Andersson, and G. Spång, “Cancer mortality of cadmium workers,” British Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 651–655, 1985. View at: Google Scholar
  2. ATSDR, “CERCLA priority list of hazardous substances that will be the subjects of toxicological profiles & support document,” Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  3. C.-J. Chen, Y.-C. Chuang, T.-M. Lin, and H.-Y. Wu, “Malignant neoplasms among residents of a blackfoot disease-endemic area in Taiwan: high-arsenic artesian well water and cancers,” Cancer Research, vol. 45, no. 11, part 2, pp. 5895–5899, 1985. View at: Google Scholar
  4. N. M. Franklin, J. L. Stauber, R. P. Lim, and P. Petocz, “Toxicity of metal mixtures to a tropical freshwater alga (Chlorella sp.): the effect of interactions between copper, cadmium, and zinc on metal cell binding and uptake,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2412–2422, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  5. A. A. Otitoloju, “Relevance of joint action toxicity evaluations in setting realistic environmental safe limits of heavy metals,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 121–128, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  6. J. Liu, Y. Liu, S. M. Habeebu, M. P. Waalkes, and C. D. Klaassen, “Chronic combined exposure to cadmium and arsenic exacerbates nephrotoxicity, particularly in metallothionein-I/II null mice,” Toxicology, vol. 147, no. 3, pp. 157–166, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  7. D. J. Spurgeon, S. R. Stürzenbaum, C. Svendsen et al., “Toxicological, cellular and gene expression responses in earthworms exposed to copper and cadmium,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part C, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 11–21, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  8. E. L. Enserink, J. L. Maas-Diepeveen, and C. J. Van Leeuwen, “Combined effects of metals; an ecotoxicological evaluation,” Water Research, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 679–687, 1991. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. R. L. Spehar and J. T. Fiandt, “Acute and chronic effects of water quality criteria-based metal mixtures on three aquatic species,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 917–931, 1986. View at: Google Scholar
  10. K. J. Buhl, “Toxicity of proposed water quality criteria-based mixtures of 11 inorganics to Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnow,” Final Report, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pierre, SD, USA, 1998, http://www.cerc.usgs.gov/pubs/center/pdfDocs/1998-001.pdf. View at: Google Scholar
  11. A. B. Ishaque, L. Johnson, T. Gerald, D. Boucaud, J. Okoh, and P. B. Tchounwou, “Assessment of individual and combined toxicities of four non-essential metals (As, Cd, Hg and Pb) in the microtox assay,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 118–120, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  12. D.-S. Bae, C. Gennings, W. H. Carter, Jr., R. S. H. Yang, and J. A. Campain, “Toxicological interactions among arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and lead in human keratinocytes,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 132–142, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  13. R. Świergosz-Kowalewska, A. Bednarska, and A. Kafel, “Glutathione levels and enzyme activity in the tissues of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus chronically exposed to a mixture of metal contaminants,” Chemosphere, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 963–974, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  14. H. M. Chan and M. G. Cherian, “Protective roles of metallothionein and glutathione in hepatotoxicity of cadmium,” Toxicology, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 281–290, 1992. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  15. E. Valencia, A. Marin, and G. Hardy, “Glutathione—nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints—part II,” Nutrition, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 485–486, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  16. C. Barata, S. J. Markich, D. J. Baird, G. Taylor, and A. M. V. M. Soares, “Genetic variability in sublethal tolerance to mixtures of cadmium and zinc in clones of Daphnia magna Straus,” Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 60, no. 1-2, pp. 85–99, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  17. B. Hultberg, A. Andersson, and A. Isaksson, “Lipoic acid increases glutathione production and enhances the effect of mercury in human cell lines,” Toxicology, vol. 175, no. 1–3, pp. 103–110, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  18. S. A. Shehata, M. R. Lasheen, I. A. Kobbia, and G. H. Ali, “Toxic effect of certain metals mixture on some physiological and morphological characteristics of freshwater algae,” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, vol. 110, no. 1-2, pp. 119–135, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  19. R. Altenburger, T. Backhaus, W. Boedeker, M. Faust, M. Scholze, and L. H. Grimme, “Predictability of the toxicity of multiple chemical mixtures to Vibrio fischeri: mixtures composed of similarly acting chemicals,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 2341–2347, 2000. View at: Google Scholar
  20. Y. J. Kang, “Exogenous glutathione decreases cellular cadmium uptake and toxicity,” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 714–718, 1992. View at: Google Scholar
  21. E. L. Hatcher, Y. Chen, and Y. J. Kang, “Cadmium resistance in A549 cells correlates with elevated glutathione content but not antioxidant enzymatic activities,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 805–812, 1995. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  22. A. Albores, J. Koropatnick, M. George Cherian, and A. J. Zelazowski, “Arsenic induces and enhances rat hepatic metallothionein production in vivo,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 85, no. 2-3, pp. 127–140, 1992. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  23. J. F. Hochadel and M. P. Waalkes, “Sequence of exposure to cadmium and arsenic determines the extent of toxic effects in male Fischer rats,” Toxicology, vol. 116, no. 1–3, pp. 89–98, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2009 Charles K. Klutse et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


More related articles

141 Views | 0 Downloads | 0 Citations
 PDF  Download Citation  Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at help@hindawi.com to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.