Table of Contents
Thrombosis
Volume 2010, Article ID 108049, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/108049
Review Article

Simplifying Thromboprophylaxis Could Improve Outcomes in Orthopaedic Surgery

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Roper Hospital, Charleston Orthopaedic Associates, 1012 Physicians Drive, Charleston, SC 29414, USA

Received 6 February 2010; Revised 27 May 2010; Accepted 18 August 2010

Academic Editor: Bergqvist Bergqvist

Copyright © 2010 Richard J. Friedman. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. H. Geerts, D. Bergqvist, G. F. Pineo et al., “Prevention of venous thromboembolism: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (8th edition),” Chest, vol. 133, no. 6 supplement, pp. 381S–453S, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. O. E. Dahl and D. Bergqvist, “Current controversies in deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis after orthopaedic surgery,” Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 394–397, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. M. Zaw, I. C. Osborne, P. N. Pettit, and A. T. Cohen, “Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in orthopedic surgery,” The Israel Medical Association Journal, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1040–1042, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. A. Caprini and T. M. Hyers, “Compliance with antithrombotic guidelines,” Managed Care, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 49–66, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. K. Kakkar, B. L. Davidson, S. K. Haas et al., “Compliance with recommended prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism: improving the use and rate of uptake of clinical practice guidelines,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 221–227, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. V. F. Tapson, T. M. Hyers, A. L. Waldo et al., “Antithrombotic therapy practices in US hospitals in an era of practice guidelines,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 165, no. 13, pp. 1458–1464, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Warwick, O. E. Dahl, and W. D. Fisher, “Orthopaedic thromboprophylaxis: limitations of current guidelines,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Series B, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 127–132, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. J. Bernstein, H. R. Roberts, and S. Adel, “Prevention of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 256, no. 6, pp. 744–749, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Ansell, J. Hirsh, E. Hylek, A. Jacobson, M. Crowther, and G. Palareti, “Pharmacology and management of the vitamin K antagonists: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (8th Edition),” Chest, vol. 133, no. 6 supplement, pp. 160S–198S, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Hirsh, T. E. Warkentin, S. G. Shaughnessy et al., “Heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin: Mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, dosing, monitoring, efficacy, and safety,” Chest, vol. 119, no. 1 supplement, pp. 64S–94S, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Arixtra (fondaparinux sodium)-Prescribing Information, 2005, http://us.gsk.com/products/assets/us_arixtra.pdf.
  12. G. Agnelli, G. B. Mancini, and D. Biagini, “The rationale for long-term prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism,” Orthopedics, vol. 23, no. 6 supplement, pp. s643–s646, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. J. Friedman, “Optimal duration of prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism following total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty,” Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 148–155, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Planes, N. Vochelle, J.-Y. Darmon, M. Fagola, M. Bellaud, and Y. Huet, “Risk of deep-venous thrombosis after hospital discharge in patients having undergone total hip replacement: double-blind randomised comparison of enoxaparin versus placebo,” The Lancet, vol. 348, no. 9022, pp. 224–228, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. Rahme, K. Dasgupta, M. Burman et al., “Postdischarge thromboprophylaxis and mortality risk after hip- or knee-replacement surgery,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 178, no. 12, pp. 1545–1554, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. J. Friedman, A. S. Gallus, F. D. Cushner, G. Fitzgerald, and F. A. Anderson Jr., “Physician compliance with guidelines for deep-vein thrombosis prevention in total hip and knee arthroplasty,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 87–97, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. F. A. Anderson Jr., J. Hirsh, K. White, and R. H. Fitzgerald Jr., “Temporal trends in prevention of venous thromboembolism following primary total hip or knee arthroplasty 1996–2001: findings from the hip and knee registry,” Chest, vol. 124, supplement 6, pp. 349S–356S, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Warwick, R. J. Friedman, G. Agnelli et al., “Insufficient duration of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after total hip or knee replacement when compared with the time course of thromboembolic events,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Series B, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 799–807, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. O. E. Dahl, “Continuing out-of-hospital prophylaxis following major orthopaedic surgery: what now?” Haemostasis, vol. 30, supplement 2, pp. 101–105, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Z. Goldhaber and A. G. Turpie, “Prevention of venous thromboembolism among hospitalized medical patients,” Circulation, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. e1–e3, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. Kearon, “Duration of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after surgery,” Chest, vol. 124, supplement 6, pp. 386S–392S, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. H. White, P. S. Romano, H. Zhou, J. Rodrigo, and W. Bargar, “Incidence and time course of thromboembolic outcomes following total hip or knee arthroplasty,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 158, no. 14, pp. 1525–1531, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. J. McRae and J. S. Ginsberg, “Initial treatment of venous thromboembolism,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 9, supplement 1, pp. I3–I9, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Prandoni, A. W. A. Lensing, A. Cogo et al., “The long-term clinical course of acute deep venous thrombosis,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Kearon, “Natural history of venous thromboembolism,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 23, supplement 1, pp. I22–I30, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. R. Kahn and J. S. Ginsberg, “Relationship between deep venous thrombosis and the postthrombotic syndrome,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 164, no. 1, pp. 17–26, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. V. Pengo, A. W. A. Lensing, M. H. Prins et al., “Incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 22, pp. 2257–2323, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. A. Caprini, M. F. Botteman, J. M. Stephens et al., “Economic burden of long-term complications of deep vein thrombosis after total hip replacement surgery in the United States,” Value in Health, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 59–74, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. K. Knight, J. Wong, O. Hauch, G. Wygant, D. Aguilar, and J. J. Ofman, “Economic and utilization outcomes associated with choice of treatment for venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients,” Value in Health, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 191–200, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. D. Sullivan, S. R. Kahn, B. L. Davidson, L. Borris, P. Bossuyt, and G. Raskob, “Measuring the outcomes and pharmacoeconomic consequences of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in major orthopaedic surgery,” PharmacoEconomics, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 477–496, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. C. Spyropoulos and J. Lin, “Direct medical costs of venous thromboembolism and subsequent hospital readmission rates: an administrative claims analysis from 30 managed care organizations,” Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 475–486, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. Detournay, A. Planes, N. Vochelle, and F. Fagnani, “Cost effectiveness of a low-molecular-weight heparin in prolonged prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis after total hip replacement,” PharmacoEconomics, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 81–89, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  33. G. Agnelli, M. R. Taliani, and M. Verso, “Building effective prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis in the outpatient setting,” Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, vol. 10, no. 6, supplement 2, pp. S29–S35, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. I. Eriksson and D. J. Quinlan, “Oral anticoagulants in development: focus on thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery,” Drugs, vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 1411–1429, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. I. Weitz, “Emerging anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 274–284, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. C. Sokol, K. A. McGuigan, R. R. Verbrugge, and R. S. Epstein, “Impact of medication adherence on hospitalization risk and healthcare cost,” Medical Care, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 521–530, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Gillissen, “Patients' adherence in asthma,” Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 58, supplement 5, pp. 205–222, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. B. V. Patel, R. S. Leslie, P. Thiebaud et al., “Adherence with single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin vs a two-pill regimen,” Vascular Health and Risk Management, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 673–681, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. A. Boyle, D. Jayaweera, M. D. Witt, K. Grimm, J.-F. Maa, and D. W. Seekins, “Randomization to once-daily stavudine extended release/lamivudine/efavirenz versus a more frequent regimen improves adherence while maintaining viral suppression,” HIV Clinical Trials, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 164–176, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. Ansell, “Factor Xa or thrombin: is factor Xa a better target?” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 5, supplement 1, pp. 60–64, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. B. I. Eriksson, O. E. Dahl, N. Rosencher et al., “Oral dabigatran etexilate vs. subcutaneous enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after total knee replacement: the RE-MODEL randomized trial,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 2178–2185, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. S. Ginsberg, B. L. Davidson, P. C. Comp et al., “Oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate vs North American enoxaparin regimen for prevention of venous thromboembolism after knee arthroplasty surgery,” Journal of Arthroplasty, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  43. B. I. Eriksson, O. E. Dahl, N. Rosencher et al., “Dabigatran etexilate versus enoxaparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip replacement: a randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial,” The Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9591, pp. 949–956, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. B. I. Eriksson and R. Friedman, “Dabigatran etexilate: pivotal trials for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after hip or knee arthroplasty,” Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis, vol. 15, pp. 25S–31S, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  45. Dabigatran Summary of Product Characteristics, “Pradaxa® (dabigatran etexilate) Summary of Product Characteristics,” 2008, http://www.pradaxa.com/Include/media/pdf/Pradaxa_SPC_EMEA.pdf.
  46. K. A. Bauer, “New anticoagulants,” Current Opinion in Hematology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 509–515, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. B. I. Eriksson, L. C. Borris, O. E. Dahl et al., “A once-daily, oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban (BAY 59-7939), for thromboprophylaxis after total hip replacement,” Circulation, vol. 114, no. 22, pp. 2374–2381, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. W. Mueck, B. I. Eriksson, K. A. Bauer et al., “Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rivaroxaban–an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor–in patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 203–216, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. I. Eriksson, L. C. Borris, R. J. Friedman et al., “Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip arthroplasty,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 26, pp. 2765–2775, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. K. Kakkar, B. Brenner, O. E. Dahl et al., “Extended duration rivaroxaban versus short-term enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 372, no. 9632, pp. 31–39, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. R. Lassen, W. Ageno, L. C. Borris et al., “Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 26, pp. 2776–2786, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. G. G. Turpie, M. R. Lassen, B. L. Davidson et al., “Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty (RECORD4): a randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 373, no. 9676, pp. 1673–1680, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Xarelto® Summary of Product Characteristics, 2009, http://www.xarelto.com/html/downloads/Xarelto_Summary_of_Product_Characteristics_May2009.pdf.
  54. S. Blech, T. Ebner, E. Ludwig-Schwellinger, J. Stangier, and W. Roth, “The metabolism and disposition of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran, in humans,” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 386–399, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C. Weinz, T. Schwarz, D. Kubitza, W. Mueck, and D. Lang, “Metabolism and excretion of rivaroxaban, an oral, direct factor xa inhibitor, in rats, dogs, and humans,” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1056–1064, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. I. Weitz, J. Hirsh, and M. M. Samama, “New antithrombotic drugs: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (8th edition),” Chest, vol. 133, no. 6 supplement, pp. 234S–256S, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. C. Radley, S. N. Finkelstein, and R. S. Stafford, “Off-label prescribing among office-based physicians,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 166, no. 9, pp. 1021–1026, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus