Table of Contents
Thrombosis
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 956962, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/956962
Review Article

Stent Thrombosis: Incidence, Predictors and New Technologies

Interventional Cardiology Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy

Received 1 November 2011; Accepted 20 December 2011

Academic Editor: Matthew J. Price

Copyright © 2012 Gill Louise Buchanan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. W. Moses, M. B. Leon, J. J. Popma et al., “Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349, no. 14, pp. 1315–1323, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. M. C. Morice, P. W. Serruys, J. E. Sousa et al., “A randomized comparison of a sirolimus-eluting stent with a standard stent for coronary revascularization,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 23, pp. 1773–1780, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. D. E. Cutlip, M. S. Chauhan, D. S. Baim et al., “Clinical restenosis after coronary stenting: perspectives from multicenter clinical trials,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2082–2089, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Roiron, P. Sanchez, A. Bouzamondo, P. Lechat, and G. Montalescot, “Drug eluting stents: an updated meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials,” Heart, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 641–649, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  5. D. O. Williams, J. D. Abbott, and K. E. Kip, “Outcomes of 6906 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in the era of drug-eluting stents: report of the DEScover Registry,” Circulation, vol. 114, no. 20, pp. 2154–2162, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. G. W. Stone, S. G. Ellis, L. Cannon et al., “Comparison of a polymer-based paclitaxel-eluting stent with a bare metal stent in patients with complex coronary artery disease: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 294, no. 10, pp. 1215–1223, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. C. Stettler, S. Wandel, S. Allemann et al., “Outcomes associated with drug-eluting and bare-metal stents: a collaborative network meta-analysis,” Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9591, pp. 937–948, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. I. Iakovou, T. Schmidt, E. Bonizzoni et al., “Incidence, predictors and outcome of thrombosis after succesful implantation of drug-eluting stents,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 293, no. 17, pp. 2126–2130, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. S. Cook and B. Meier, “Have we been misled by the ESC DES firestorm?” EuroIntervention, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 535–537, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  10. D. E. Cutlip, S. Windecker, R. Mehran et al., “Clinical end points in coronary stent trials: a case for standardized definitions,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 17, pp. 2344–2351, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. P. W. Serruys, B. H. Strauss, K. J. Beatt et al., “Angiographic follow-up after placement of a self-expanding coronary-artery stent,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 324, no. 1, pp. 13–17, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. E. Cutlip, M. B. Leon, K. K. Ho et al., “Acute and nine-month clinical outcomes after "suboptimal" coronary stenting: results from the STent Anti-thrombotic Regimen Study (STARS) registry,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 698–706, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Colombo, P. Hall, S. Nakamura et al., “Intracoronary stenting without anticoagulation accomplished with intravascular ultrasound guidance,” Circulation, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 1676–1688, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Awata, J. Kotani, M. Uematsu et al., “Serial angioscopic evidence of incomplete neointimal coverage after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation: comparison with bare-metal stents,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 8, pp. 910–916, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. D. E. Cutlip, D. S. Baim, K. K. Ho et al., “Stent thrombosis in the modern Era: a pooled analysis of multicenter coronary stent clinical trials,” Circulation, vol. 103, no. 15, pp. 1967–1971, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. W. van Werkum, A. A. Heestermans, F. I. de Korte et al., “Long-term clinical outcome after a first angiographically confirmed coronary stent thrombosis: an analysis of 431 cases,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 828–834, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. P. Wenaweser, J. Daemen, M. Zwahlen et al., “Incidence and correlates of drug-eluting stent thrombosis in routine clinical practice. 4-year results from a large 2-institutional cohort study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 52, no. 14, pp. 1134–1140, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. T. Kimura, T. Morimoto, Y. Nakagawa et al., “Antiplatelet therapy and stent thrombosis after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 7, pp. 987–995, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. A. J. Kirtane, A. Gupta, S. Iyengar et al., “Safety and efficacy of drug-eluting and bare metal stents: comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized trials and observational studies,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 25, pp. 3198–3206, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. S. S. Brar, M. B. Leon, G. W. Stone et al., “Use of drug-eluting stents in acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 53, no. 18, pp. 1677–1689, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. G. W. Stone, A. Rizvi, K. Sudhir et al., “Randomized comparison of everolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting stents: 2-year follow-up from the SPIRIT (clinical evaluation of the XIENCE v everolimus eluting coronary stent system) IV trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 19–25, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  22. E. Kedhi, K. S. Joesoef, E. McFadden et al., “Second-generation everolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting stents in real-life practice (COMPARE): a randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9710, pp. 201–209, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. A. Byrne, A. Kastrati, S. Massberg et al., “Biodegradable polymer versus permanent polymer drug-eluting stents and everolimus- versus sirolimus-eluting stents in patients with coronary artery disease: 3-year outcomes from a randomized clinical trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 58, no. 13, pp. 1325–1331, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  24. M. B. Leon, L. Mauri, J. J. Popma et al., “A randomized comparison of the ENDEAVOR zotarolimus-eluting stent versus the TAXUS paclitaxel-eluting stent in de novo native coronary lesions 12-month outcomes from the ENDEAVOR IV trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 543–554, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. I. T. Meredith, J. Ormiston, R. Whitbourn, I. P. Kay, D. Muller, and D. E. Cutlip, “Five-year clinical follow-up after implantation of the endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent: ENDEAVOR I, first-in-human study,” Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 989–995, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  26. J. Fajadet, W. Wijns, G. J. Laarman et al., “Randomized, double-blind, multicenter study of the endeavor zotarolimus-eluting phosphorylcholine-encapsulated stent for treatment of native coronary artery lesions: clinical and angiographic results of the ENDEAVOR II trial,” Circulation, vol. 114, no. 8, pp. 798–806, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. D. E. Kandzari, M. B. Leon, J. J. Popma et al., “Comparison of zotarolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting stents in patients with native coronary artery disease: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 2440–2447, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. E. L. Eisenstein, M. B. Leon, D. E. Kandzari et al., “Long-term clinical and economic analysis of the Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent versus the cypher sirolimus-eluting stent: 3-year results from the ENDEAVOR III trial (Randomized Controlled Trial of the Medtronic Endeavor Drug [ABT-578] Eluting Coronary Stent System Versus the Cypher Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions),” JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 1199–1207, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. S. Silber, S. Windecker, P. Vranckx, and P. W. Serruys, “Unrestricted randomised use of two new generation drug-eluting coronary stents: 2-year patient-related versus stent-related outcomes from the RESOLUTE All Comers trial,” The Lancet, vol. 377, no. 9773, pp. 1241–1247, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. J. M. de la Torre Hernndez, F. Alfonso, F. Gimeno et al., “Thrombosis of second-generation drug-eluting stents in real practice: results from the multicenter Spanish registry ESTROFA-2 (estudio espaol sobre trombosis de stents farmacoactivos de segunda generacion-2),” JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 911–919, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  31. R. J. Shelton, K. Chitkara, R. Singh et al., “Three-year clinical outcome with the endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent in primary percutaneous coronary intervention for st elevation myocardial infarction: the Endeavor Primary PCI Study (E-PPCI),” Journal of Interventional Cardiology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 542–548, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  32. K. Rasmussen, M. Maeng, A. Kaltoft et al., “Efficacy and safety of zotarolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting coronary stents in routine clinical care (SORT OUT III): a randomised controlled superiority trial,” The Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9720, pp. 1090–1099, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. W. Park, Y. H. Kim, S. C. Yun et al., “Comparison of zotarolimus-eluting stents with sirolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting stents for coronary revascularization: the ZEST (comparison of the efficacy and safety of zotarolimus-eluting stent with sirolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting stent for coronary lesions) randomized trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 56, no. 15, pp. 1187–1195, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  34. J. Daemen, P. Wenaweser, K. Tsuchida et al., “Early and late coronary stent thrombosis of sirolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting stents in routine clinical practice: data from a large two-institutional cohort study,” Lancet, vol. 369, no. 9562, pp. 667–678, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. A. Kaltoft, L. O. Jensen, M. Maeng et al., “2-year clinical outcomes after implantation of sirolimus-eluting, paclitaxel-eluting, and bare-metal coronary stents: results from the WDHR (Western Denmark Heart Registry),” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 658–664, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. L. Räber, L. Wohlwend, M. Wigger et al., “Five-year clinical and angiographic outcomes of a randomized comparison of sirolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting stents: results of the sirolimus-eluting versus paclitaxel-eluting stents for coronary revascularization LATE trial,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 24, pp. 2819–2828, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  37. F. Burzotta, A. Parma, C. Pristipino et al., “Angiographic and clinical outcome of invasively managed patients with thrombosed coronary bare metal or drug-eluting stents: the OPTIMIST study,” European Heart Journal, vol. 29, no. 24, pp. 3011–3021, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. P. K. Kuchulakanti, W. W. Chu, R. Torguson et al., “Correlates and long-term outcomes of angiographically proven stent thrombosis with sirolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting stents,” Circulation, vol. 113, no. 8, pp. 1108–1113, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. T. Kimura, T. Morimoto, K. Kozuma et al., “Comparisons of baseline demographics, clinical presentation, and long-term outcome among patients with early, late, and very late stent thrombosis of sirolimus-eluting stents: observations from the registry of stent thrombosis for review and reevaluation (RESTART),” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 52–61, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. L. Mauri, W. H. Hsieh, J. M. Massaro, K. K. Ho, R. D'Agostino, and D. E. Cutlip, “Stent thrombosis in randomized clinical trials of drug-eluting stents,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 356, no. 10, pp. 1020–1029, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. L. Belle, M. Mahmoudi, C. Delhaye et al., “Do patients with drug-eluting stent thrombosis have a similar prognosis to patients presenting with ST-Elevation myocardial infarction of de novo lesions?” Journal of Interventional Cardiology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 320–325, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  42. G. Sianos, M. I. Papafaklis, J. Daemen et al., “Angiographic stent thrombosis after routine use of drug-eluting stents in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: the importance of thrombus burden,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 573–583, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. D. R. Holmes Jr., D. J. Kereiakes, S. Garg et al., “Stent thrombosis,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 56, no. 17, pp. 1357–1365, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. S. Windecker and B. Meier, “Late coronary stent thrombosis,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 17, pp. 1952–1965, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  45. E. Cheneau, L. Leborgne, G. S. Mintz et al., “Predictors of subacute stent thrombosis: results of a systematic intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 43–47, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  46. A. V. Finn, M. Joner, G. Nakazawa et al., “Pathological correlates of late drug-eluting stent thrombosis: strut coverage as a marker of endothelialization,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 18, pp. 2435–2441, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  47. M. Joner, A. V. Finn, A. Farb et al., “Pathology of drug-eluting stents in humans: delayed healing and late thrombotic risk,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 193–202, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  48. D. Matsumoto, J. Shite, T. Shinke et al., “Neointimal coverage of sirolimus-eluting stents at 6-month follow-up: evaluated by optical coherence tomography,” European Heart Journal, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 961–967, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  49. S.-J. Kang, G. S. Mintz, T. Akasaka et al., “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of in-stent neoatherosclerosis after drug-eluting stent implantation,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 25, pp. 2954–2963, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  50. B. X. Chen, F. Y. Ma, W. Luo et al., “Neointimal coverage of bare-metal and sirolimus-eluting stents evaluated with optical coherence tomography,” Heart, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 566–570, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  51. T. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, B. K. Kim et al., “Long-term (>/=2) follow-up optical coherence tomographic study after sirolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation: comparison to 9-month follow-up results,” International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 875–881, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  52. G. Dangas, E. D. Aymong, R. Mehran et al., “Predictors of and outcomes of early thrombosis following balloon angioplasty versus primary stenting in acute myocardial infarction and usefulness of abciximab (the CADILLAC trial),” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 94, no. 8, pp. 983–988, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  53. G. D. Dangas, A. Caixeta, R. Mehran et al., “Frequency and predictors of stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 16, pp. 1745–1756, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  54. P. Roy, D. H. Steinberg, S. J. Sushinsky et al., “The potential clinical utility of intravascular ultrasound guidance in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents,” European Heart Journal, vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 1851–1857, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  55. Y. Ozaki, M. Okumura, T. F. Ismail et al., “The fate of incomplete stent apposition with drug-eluting stents: an optical coherence tomography-based natural history study,” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1470–1476, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  56. G. Guagliumi, M. A. Costa, V. Sirbu et al., “Strut coverage and late malapposition with paclitaxel-eluting stents compared with bare metal stents in acute myocardial infarction: optical coherence tomography substudy of the harmonizing outcomes with revascularization and stents in acute myocardial infarction (HORIZONS-AMI) trial,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 274–281, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  57. S. B. King, S. C. Smith Jr., J. W. Hirshfeld Jr. et al., “2007 focused update of the ACC/AHA/SCAI 2005 guideline update for percutaneous coronary intervention: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 172–209, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  58. W. Wijns, P. Kolh, N. Danchin et al., “Guidelines on myocardial revascularization,” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, no. 20, pp. 2501–2555, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  59. F. Airoldi, A. Colombo, N. Morici et al., “Incidence and predictors of drug-eluting stent thrombosis during and after discontinuation of thienopyridine treatment,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 7, pp. 745–754, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  60. S. Schulz, T. Schuster, J. Mehilli et al., “Stent thrombosis after drug-eluting stent implantation: incidence, timing, and relation to discontinuation of clopidogrel therapy over a 4-year period,” European Heart Journal, vol. 30, no. 22, pp. 2714–2721, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  61. G. Tanzilli, C. Greco, F. Pelliccia et al., “Effectiveness of two-year clopidogrel + aspirin in abolishing the risk of very late thrombosis after drug-eluting stent implantation (from the TYCOON [two-year ClOpidOgrel need] study),” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 104, no. 10, pp. 1357–1361, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  62. S. J. Park, D. W. Park, Y. H. Kim et al., “Duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after implantation of drug-eluting stents,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 362, no. 15, pp. 1374–1382, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  63. M. Valgimigli, G. Campo, G. Percoco et al., “Randomized comparison of 6-versus 24-month clopidogrel therapy after balancing anti-intimal hyperplasia stent potency in all-comer patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: design and rationale for the PROlonging Dual-antiplatelet treatment after Grading stent-induced Intimal hyperplasia study (PRODIGY),” American Heart Journal, vol. 160, no. 5, pp. 804–811, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  64. R. A. Byrne, S. Schulz, J. Mehilli et al., “Rationale and design of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 6 versus 12 months clopidogrel therapy after implantation of a drug-eluting stent: the Intracoronary Stenting and Antithrombotic Regimen: safety and EFficacy of 6 Months Dual Antiplatelet Therapy after Drug-Eluting Stenting (ISAR-SAFE) study,” American Heart Journal, vol. 157, no. 4, pp. 620–624.e2, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  65. L. Mauri, D. J. Kereiakes, S.-L. Normand et al., “Rationale and design of the dual antiplatelet therapy study, a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial to assess the effectiveness and safety of 12 versus 30 months of dual antiplatelet therapy in subjects undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with either drug-eluting stent or bare metal stent placement for the treatment of coronary artery lesions,” American Heart Journal, vol. 160, no. 6, pp. 1035–1041.e1, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  66. A. M. Gori, R. Marcucci, A. Migliorini et al., “Incidence and clinical impact of dual nonresponsiveness to aspirin and clopidogrel in patients with drug-eluting stents,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 734–739, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  67. P. Barragan, J.-L. Bouvier, P.-O. Roquebert et al., “Resistance to thienopyridines: clinical detection of coronary stent thrombosis by monitoring of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation,” Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 295–302, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  68. P. Buonamici, R. Marcucci, A. Migliorini et al., “Impact of platelet reactivity after clopidogrel administration on drug-eluting stent thrombosis,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 49, no. 24, pp. 2312–2317, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  69. D. J. Angiolillo, A. Fernandez-Ortiz, E. Bernardo et al., “Variability in individual responsiveness to clopidogrel: clinical implications, management, and future perspectives,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 49, no. 14, pp. 1505–1516, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  70. W. C. Lau, P. A. Gurbel, P. B. Watkins et al., “Contribution of hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 metabolic activity to the phenomenon of clopidogrel resistance,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 166–171, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  71. P. A. Gurbel, K. P. Bliden, B. L. Hiatt, and C. M. O'Connor, “Clopidogrel for coronary stenting: response variability, drug resistance, and the effect of pretreatment platelet reactivity,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 23, pp. 2908–2913, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  72. S. S. Brar, J. Ten Berg, R. Marcucci et al., “Impact of platelet reactivity on clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 58, no. 19, pp. 1945–1954, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  73. G. Parodi, R. Marcucci, R. Valenti et al., “High residual platelet reactivity after clopidogrel loading and long-term cardiovascular events among patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing PCI,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 306, no. 11, pp. 1215–1223, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  74. M. J. Price, P. B. Berger, P. S. Teirstein et al., “Standard- vs high-dose clopidogrel based on platelet function testing after percutaneous coronary intervention: the GRAVITAS randomized trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 305, no. 11, pp. 1097–1105, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  75. T. Simon, C. Verstuyft, M. Mary-Krause et al., “Genetic determinants of response to clopidogrel and cardiovascular events,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 4, pp. 363–375, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  76. A. R. Shuldiner, J. R. O'Connell, K. P. Bliden et al., “Association of cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype with the antiplatelet effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel therapy,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 302, no. 8, pp. 849–857, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  77. W. Hochholzer, D. Trenk, M. F. Fromm et al., “Impact of cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism and of major demographic characteristics on residual platelet function after loading and maintenance treatment with clopidogrel in patients undergoing elective coronary stent placement,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 55, no. 22, pp. 2427–2434, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  78. D. R. Holmes Jr., G. J. Dehmer, S. Kaul, D. Leifer, P. T. O'Gara, and C. M. Stein, “ACCF/AHA clinical alert: ACCF/AHA clopidogrel clinical alert: approaches to the FDA "boxed warning" a report of the American college of cardiology foundation task force on clinical expert consensus documents and the American heart association,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 537–557, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  79. L. Bonello, U. S. Tantry, R. Marcucci et al., “Consensus and future directions on the definition of high on-treatment platelet reactivity to adenosine diphosphate,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 919–933, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  80. G. Cayla, J.-S. Hulot, S. A. O'Connor et al., “Clinical, angiographic, and genetic factors associated with early coronary stent thrombosis,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 306, no. 16, pp. 1765–1774, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  81. J. L. Mega, W. Hochholzer, A. L. Frelinger III. et al., “Dosing clopidogrel based on CYP2C19 genotype and the effect on platelet reactivity in patients with stable cardiovascular disease,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 306, no. 20, pp. 2221–2228, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  82. L. Wallentin, C. Varenhorst, S. James et al., “Prasugrel achieves greater and faster P2Y12receptor-mediated platelet inhibition than clopidogrel due to more efficient generation of its active metabolite in aspirin-treated patients with coronary artery disease,” European Heart Journal, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 21–30, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  83. P. A. Gurbel, K. P. Bliden, K. Butler et al., “Randomized double-blind assessment of the ONSET and OFFSET of the antiplatelet effects of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with stable coronary artery disease: the ONSET/OFFSET study,” Circulation, vol. 120, no. 25, pp. 2577–2585, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  84. S. D. Wiviott, E. Braunwald, D. J. Angiolillo et al., “Greater clinical benefit of more intensive oral antiplatelet therapy with prasugrel in patients with diabetes mellitus in the trial to assess improvement in therapeutic outcomes by optimizing platelet inhibition with prasugrel-thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 38,” Circulation, vol. 118, no. 16, pp. 1626–1636, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  85. L. Wallentin, R. C. Becker, A. Budaj et al., “Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 11, pp. 1045–1057, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  86. S. D. Wiviott, D. Trenk, A. L. Frelinger et al., “Prasugrel compared with high loading- and maintenance-dose clopidogrel in patients with planned percutaneous coronary intervention: the prasugrel in comparison to clopidogrel for inhibition of platelet activation and aggregation-thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 44 trial,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 25, pp. 2923–2932, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  87. P. A. Gurbel, K. P. Bliden, K. Butler et al., “Response to ticagrelor in clopidogrel nonresponders and responders and effect of switching therapies: the RESPOND study,” Circulation, vol. 121, no. 10, pp. 1188–1199, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  88. C. P. Cannon, R. A. Harrington, S. James et al., “Comparison of ticagrelor with clopidogrel in patients with a planned invasive strategy for acute coronary syndromes (PLATO): a randomised double-blind study,” The Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9711, pp. 283–293, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. G. Montalescot, S. D. Wiviott, E. Braunwald et al., “Prasugrel compared with clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (TRITON-TIMI 38): double-blind, randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 373, no. 9665, pp. 723–731, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. Y. H. Jeong, S. W. Lee, B. R. Choi et al., “Randomized comparison of adjunctive cilostazol versus high maintenance dose clopidogrel in patients with high post-treatment platelet reactivity: results of the ACCEL-RESISTANCE (Adjunctive Cilostazol Versus High Maintenance Dose Clopidogrel in Patients With Clopidogrel Resistance) randomized study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 53, no. 13, pp. 1101–1109, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  91. S. W. Lee, S. W. Park, S. C. Yun et al., “Triple antiplatelet therapy reduces ischemic events after drug-eluting stent implantation: drug-Eluting stenting followed by Cilostazol treatment REduces Adverse Serious cardiac Events (DECREASE registry),” American Heart Journal, vol. 159, no. 2, pp. 284–291.e1, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  92. M. L. O'Donoghue, E. Braunwald, E. M. Antman et al., “Pharmacodynamic effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel and prasugrel with or without a proton-pump inhibitor: an analysis of two randomised trials,” The Lancet, vol. 374, no. 9694, pp. 989–997, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. D. L. Bhatt, B. L. Cryer, C. F. Contant et al., “Clopidogrel with or without omeprazole in coronary artery disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 20, pp. 1909–1917, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  94. R. S. Wright, J. L. Anderson, C. D. Adams et al., “2011 ACCF/AHA focused update of the Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (updating the 2007 guideline): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines developed in collaboration with the American College of Emergency Physicians, Society for Cardiovascular,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 57, no. 19, pp. 1920–1959, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  95. W. J. Van der Giessen, A. M. Lincoff, R. S. Schwartz et al., “Marked inflammatory sequelae to implantation of biodegradable and nonbiodegradable polymers in porcine coronary arteries,” Circulation, vol. 94, no. 7, pp. 1690–1697, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. G. Nakazawa, F. Otsuka, M. Nakano et al., “The pathology of neoatherosclerosis in human coronary implants: bare-metal and drug-eluting stents,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 1314–1322, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  97. T. F. Lüscher, J. Steffel, F. R. Eberli et al., “Drug-eluting stent and coronary thrombosis: biological mechanisms and clinical implications,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 8, pp. 1051–1058, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  98. J. Wykrzykowska, P. Serruys, P. Buszman et al., “The three year follow-up of the randomised "all-comers" trial of a biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stent versus permanent polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (LEADERS),” EuroIntervention, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 789–795, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  99. P. Barlis, E. Regar, P. W. Serruys et al., “An optical coherence tomography study of a biodegradable vs. durable polymer-coated limus-eluting stent: a LEADERS trial sub-study,” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 165–176, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  100. N. Tada, R. Virmani, G. Grant et al., “Polymer-free Biolimus A9-coated stent demonstrates more sustained intimal inhibition, improved healing, and reduced inflammation compared with a polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting cypher stent in a porcine model,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 174–183, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  101. D. Dudek, Y. Onuma, J. A. Ormiston et al., “Four-year clinical follow-up of the ABSORB everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold in patients with denovo coronary artery disease: the ABSORB trial,” EuroIntervention, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 1060–1061, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  102. P. W. Serruys, Y. Onuma, D. Dudek et al., “Evaluation of the second generation of a bioresorbable everolimus-eluting vascular scaffold for the treatment of de Novo Coronary Artery stenosis: 12-month clinical and imaging outcomes,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 58, no. 15, pp. 1578–1588, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed