Table of Contents
Thrombosis
Volume 2014, Article ID 182762, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/182762
Research Article

Study of Associated Genetic Variants in Indian Subjects Reveals the Basis of Ethnicity Related Differences in Susceptibility to Venous Thromboembolism

1Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences, Timarpur, Delhi 110054, India
2Army Hospital [R & R], Delhi Cantonment, New Delhi 110010, India
3Genomics Division, Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054, India

Received 11 March 2014; Revised 5 June 2014; Accepted 2 September 2014; Published 30 September 2014

Academic Editor: David H. Farrell

Copyright © 2014 Babita Kumari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Koster, F. R. Rosendaal, E. Briet et al., “Protein C deficiency in a controlled series of unselected outpatients: an infrequent but clear risk factor for venous thrombosis (Leiden Thrombophilia Study),” Blood, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 2756–2761, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. M. Ridker, J. P. Miletich, C. H. Hennekens, and J. E. Buring, “Ethnic distribution of factor V Leiden in 4047 men and women: implications for venous thromboembolism screening,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 277, no. 16, pp. 1305–1307, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. C. Souto, L. Almasy, M. Borrell et al., “Genetic susceptibility to thrombosis and its relationship to physiological risk factors: the GAIT study,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1452–1459, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. W. W. Coon, “Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 186, no. 2, pp. 149–164, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. H. White and C. R. Keenan, “Effects of race and ethnicity on the incidence of venous thromboembolism,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 123, no. 4, pp. S11–S17, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. H. White, H. Zhou, and P. S. Romano, “Incidence of idiopathic deep venous thrombosis and secondary thromboembolism among ethnic groups in California,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 128, no. 9, pp. 737–740, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. V. K. Kapoor, “Venous thromboembolism in India,” National Medical Journal of India, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 193–195, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. D. Lee, E. Stephen, S. Agarwal, and P. Premkumar, “Venous Thrombo-embolism in India,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 482–485, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Tyagi, S. Ahmad, N. Gupta et al., “Altered expression of platelet proteins and calpain activity mediate hypoxia-induced prothrombotic phenotype.,” Blood, vol. 123, no. 8, pp. 1250–1260, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. A. Zakai and L. A. Mcclure, “Racial differences in venous thromboembolism,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1877–1882, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. U. Seligsohn and A. Lubetsky, “Genetic susceptibility to venous thrombosis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 344, no. 16, pp. 1222–1231, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. Simioni, B.-J. Sanson, P. Prandoni et al., “Incidence of venous thromboembolism in families with inherited thrombophilia,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 198–202, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Rosendorff and D. M. Dorfman, “Activated protein C resistance and factor V Leiden: a review,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 131, no. 6, pp. 866–871, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Margaglione, V. Brancaccio, D. De Lucia et al., “Inherited thrombophilic risk factors and venous thromboembolism: distinct role in peripheral deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism,” Chest, vol. 118, no. 5, pp. 1405–1411, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. Ghosh, S. Shetty, M. Madkaikar et al., “Venous thromboembolism in young patients from Western India: a study,” Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 158–165, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. W. Z. Abdullah, S. Kumaraguru, S. Ghazali, and N. M. Yusoff, “Factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations among healthy Indians in Malaysia,” Laboratory Medicine, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 284–287, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. I. Kumar, A. Kumar, S. Srivastava, V. A. Saraswat, and R. Aggarwal, “Low frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations in patients with hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction in northern India: a case-control study,” Indian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 211–215, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. A. Nekoo, T. Simon Futers, M. Moia, P. M. Mannucci, P. J. Grant, and R. A. S. Ariëns, “Analysis of the tissue factor pathway inhibitor gene and antigen levels in relation to venous thrombosis,” The British Journal of Haematology, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 537–543, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Kleesiek, M. Schmidt, C. Götting et al., “The 536CT transition in the human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) gene is statistically associated with a higher risk for venous thrombosis,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Gonzalez-Conejero, M. L. Lozano, J. Corral, C. Martinez, and V. Vicente, “The TFPI 536C→T mutation is not associated with increased risk for venous or arterial thrombosis,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 787–788, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. J. Dawson, B. Wiman, A. Hamsten, F. Green, S. Humphries, and A. M. Henney, “The two allele sequences of a common polymorphism in the promoter of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene respond differently to interleukin-1 in HepG2 cells,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 268, no. 15, pp. 10739–10745, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Cattaneo, “Hyperhomocysteinemia, atherosclerosis and thrombosis,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 165–176, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Khare, K. Ghosh, S. Shetty, B. Kulkarni, and D. Mohanty, “Combination of thrombophilia markers in acute myocardial infarction of the young,” Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 381–388, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Frosst, H. J. Blom, R. Milos et al., “A candidate genetic risk factor for vascular disease: a common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase,” Nature Genetics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 111–113, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. O. Fletcher and A. M. Kessling, “MTHFR association with arteriosclerotic vascular disease?” Human Genetics, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 11–21, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Homocysteine Studies Collaboration, “Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke: a meta-analysis,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, no. 16, pp. 2015–2022, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  27. G. K. Hansson, “Mechanisms of disease: inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, no. 16, pp. 1626–1695, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y. M. Smulders and H. J. Blom, “The homocysteine controversy,” Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 93–99, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. Clarke, “Evidence against a causal association of homocysteine and coronary heart disease: a mendelian randomization study,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Homocysteine Metabolism, Prague, Czech Republic, 2009.
  30. S. J. Lewis, S. Ebrahim, and G. D. Smith, “Meta-analysis of MTHFR 677C→T polymorphism and coronary heart disease: does totality of evidence support causal role for homocysteine and preventive potential of folate?” British Medical Journal, vol. 331, no. 7524, pp. 1053–1056, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. P. E. Morange, M. Henry, D. Tregouët et al., “The A -844G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene is associated with a higher risk of venous thrombosis in factor V leiden carriers,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1387–1391, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. Wilhelmsen, K. Svardsudd, and K. Korsan-Bengtsen, “Fibrinogen as a risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 311, no. 8, pp. 501–505, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Koster, F. R. Rosendaal, P. H. Reitsma, P. A. van der Velden, E. Briet, and J. P. Vandenbroucke, “Factor VII and fibrinogen levels as risk factors for venous thrombosis,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 719–722, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. F. M. Van'T Hooft, S. J. F. Von Bahr, A. Silveira, A. Iliadou, P. Eriksson, and A. Hamsten, “Two common, functional polymorphisms in the promoter region of the β- fibrinogen gene contribute to regulation of plasma fibrinogen concentration,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 3063–3070, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. I. Behague, O. Poirier, V. Nicaud et al., “β Fibrinogen gene polymorphisms are associated with plasma fibrinogen and coronary artery disease in patients with myocardial infarction: the ECTIM study,” Circulation, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 440–449, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus