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Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Volume 2011, Article ID 574591, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/574591
Review Article

Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin as a Vaccine Vector for Global Infectious Disease Control

1R & D Department, Japan BCG Laboratory, 3-1-5 Matsuyama, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-0022, Japan
2Tsukuba Primate Research Center, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 1-1 Hachimandai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0843, Japan
3Department of Immunoregulation, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu City, Mie Prefecture 514-8507, Japan

Received 13 January 2011; Accepted 7 March 2011

Academic Editor: Brian Eley

Copyright © 2011 Kazuhiro Matsuo and Yasuhiro Yasutomi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only available vaccine for tuberculosis (TB). Although this vaccine is effective in controlling infantile TB, BCG-induced protective effects against pulmonary diseases in adults have not been clearly demonstrated. Recombinant BCG (rBCG) technology has been extensively applied to obtain more potent immunogenicity of this vaccine, and several candidate TB vaccines have currently reached human clinical trials. On the other hand, recent progress in the improvement of the BCG vector, such as the codon optimization strategy and combination with viral vector boost, allows us to utilize this bacterium in HIV vaccine development. In this paper, we review recent progress in rBCG-based vaccine studies that may have implications in the development of novel vaccines for controlling global infectious diseases in the near future.