Table 1: Diagnostic, inclusion, and exclusion criteria for cases and controls*.

Parameters for TB diagnosis
 Positive sputum smear and/or culture for AFB
 CXR with evidence of cavitations, infiltration, and/or fibrosis
 Clinical indicators of TB, chronic persistent: low-grade fever  with night sweats, productive cough, weight loss, and anorexia
Inclusion criteria
 Fulfilling two or more diagnostic parameters for pulmonary TB
 Patients admitted within the same month of the year
Exclusion criteria
 No clear evidence of active pulmonary TB
 Exclusively extrapulmonary TB
 Cause of death other than TB (for cases)

TB: tuberculosis; AFB: acid-fast bacilli; CXR: chest X-ray.