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Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 561490, 6 pages
Research Article

Multiplex Analysis of Pro- or Anti-Inflammatory Serum Cytokines and Chemokines in relation to Gender and Age among Tanzanian Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Patients

1Centre for International Health, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, 5021 Bergen, Norway
2Department of Thoracic Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen, Norway
3Broegelmann Research Laboratory, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, 5021 Bergen, Norway
4National Institute for Medical Research, Muhimbili, Tanzania
5The Gade Research Group for Infection and Immunity, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, 5021 Bergen, Norway

Received 31 December 2014; Revised 2 April 2015; Accepted 13 April 2015

Academic Editor: Paul R. Klatser

Copyright © 2015 Tehmina Mustafa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objectives. Tuberculous lymphadenitis is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with a female and paediatric preponderance, postulated to be due to differences in the immune response. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in the serum cytokine levels of tuberculous lymphadenitis patients with respect to age and gender. Methods. A multiplex bead-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, and IL-17 levels in sera of patients and healthy controls . Results. Levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 were higher in adult patients than in controls, while those of IL-12 were lower . Children had lower levels of TNF-α, GM-CSF, and IL-5 and higher levels of IL-2 compared with adult patients . The male adult patients had higher levels of IL-17 and lower levels of IL-12 compared with female adult patients .  Conclusion. There were significant differences in the levels of circulating cytokines with respect to gender and age. Children had generally lower levels of cytokines as compared to adults, which could make them more susceptible. Findings do not support that female preponderance is due to differences in immune response.