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Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Volume 2016, Article ID 4282313, 6 pages
Research Article

The Use of Xpert MTB/Rif for Active Case Finding among TB Contacts in North West Province, South Africa

1Perinatal HIV Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
2Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZX, UK
3Department of Molecular Medicine and Hematology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
4Department of Internal Medicine, Klerksdorp/Tshepong Hospital Complex, North West Department of Health and University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
5DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa

Received 30 April 2016; Accepted 16 June 2016

Academic Editor: Brian Eley

Copyright © 2016 Limakatso Lebina et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Introduction. Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in high HIV burden settings. Active case finding is one strategy to potentially reduce TB disease burden. Xpert MTB/Rif has recently been recommended for diagnosis of TB. Methods. Pragmatic randomized trial to compare diagnosis rate and turnaround time for laboratory testing for Xpert MTB/Rif with TB microscopy and culture in household contacts of patients recently diagnosed with TB. Results. 2464 household contacts enrolled into the study from 768 active TB index cases. 1068 (44%) were unable to give sputum, but 24 of these were already on TB treatment. 863 (53%) participants sputum samples were tested with smear and culture and 2.7% (23/863; CI: 1.62–3.78) were diagnosed with active TB. Xpert MTB/Rif was used in 515 (21%) participants; active TB was diagnosed in 1.6% (8/515; CI: 0.52–2.68). Discussion and Conclusions. Additional 31 cases were diagnosed with contact tracing of household members. When Xpert MTB/Rif is compared with culture, there is no significant difference in diagnostic yield.