Four different examples of neutron diffraction pole figure measurements are presented showing the variety of applications in metallic texture and microstructure analysis. Two examples are concerned with the study of texture effects on cold rolled titanium and warm bended α-iron sheets. Two further examples are connected with the study of twinning laws and special orientation relationships in hexahedritic and octahedritic iron meteorites. Nishiyama–Wassermann orientations between α- and γ-iron phases are experimentally confirmed.