Table of Contents
Ulcers
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 196982, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/196982
Research Article

In-Hospital Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding following Cardiac Surgery: Patient Characteristics, Endoscopic Lesions and Prognosis

1Division of Gastroenterology, McGill University Health Center, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
2Division of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University Health Center, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3G 1A4
3Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, McGill University Health Center, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada

Received 11 June 2012; Revised 25 July 2012; Accepted 25 July 2012

Academic Editor: Joachim Labenz

Copyright © 2012 Marcos Amorim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) can occur following cardiac surgery, with sparse contemporary data on patient characteristics and predictors of outcome in this setting. Aim. To describe the clinical and endoscopic characteristics of patients with NVUGIB following cardiac surgery and characterize predictors of outcome. Methods. Retrospective review of 131 consecutive patients with NVUGIB following cardiac surgery from 2002 to 2005. Demographic characteristics, therapeutic management, and predictors of outcomes were determined. Results. 69.5% were male, mean age: 68.8 ± 10.2 yrs, mean Parsonnet score: 24.6 ± 14.2. Commonest symptoms included melena (59.4%) or coffee ground emesis (25.8%). In-hospital medications included ASA (88.5%), heparin (95.4%, low molecular weight 6.9%), coumadin (48.1%), clopidogrel (22.9%), and NSAIDS (42%). Initial hemodynamic instability was noted in 47.1%. Associated laboratory results included hematocrit 26 ± 6, platelets 243 ± 133 109/L, INR 1.7 ± 1.6, and PTT 53.3 ± 35.6 s. Endoscopic evaluation (122 patients) yielded ulcers (85.5%) with high-risk lesions in 45.5%. Ulcers were located principally in the stomach (22.5%) or duodenum (45.9%). Many patients had more than one lesion, including esophagitis (28.7%) or erosions (26.8%). 48.8% received endoscopic therapy. Mean lengths of intensive care unit and overall stays were 10.4 ± 18.4 and 39.4 ± 46.9 days, respectively. Overall mortality was 19.1%. Only mechanical ventilation under 48 hours predicted mortality (O.R = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.04−0.34). Conclusions. This contemporary cohort of consecutive patients with NVUGIB following cardiac surgery bled most often from ulcers or esophagitis; many had multiple lesions. ICU and total hospital stays as well as mortality were significant. Mechanical ventilation for under 48 hours was associated with improved survival.