Table 1: Urban and suburban characteristics important to UHI formation and their effect on the energy balance of the earth’s surface [11].

Characteristic contributing to UHI formationEffect on the energy balance

Lack of vegetationReduced evaporation
Widespread use of impermeable surfacesReduced evaporation
Increased thermal diffusivity of urban materialsIncreased heat storage
Low solar reflectance of urban materialsIncreased net radiation
Urban geometries that trap heatIncreased net radiation
Urban geometries that slow wind speedsReduced convection
Increased levels of air pollutionIncreased net radiation
Increased energy useIncreased anthropogenic heat