Table of Contents
Urban Studies Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 1565602, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1565602
Research Article

Understanding Youth Violence in Kumasi: Does Community Socialization Matter? A Cross-Sectional Study

1Department of Sociology and Social Work, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
2Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Centre for International Health, Munich, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah; moc.liamg@7002tsirhcys

Received 6 November 2016; Revised 6 February 2017; Accepted 23 February 2017; Published 14 March 2017

Academic Editor: Thomas Panagopoulos

Copyright © 2017 Asamani Jonas Barnie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. O. Moser and C. McIlwaine, Encounters with Violence in Latin America: Urban Poor Perceptions from Columbia and Guatemala, Psychology Press, 2004.
  2. WHO, World Health Organization. World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002.
  3. Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), 2010 Population and Housing Census: National Analytical Report, GSS, Accra, Ghana, 2013.
  4. S. C. Y. Appiah, E. Badu, J. M. Dapaah, T. Harriet, and M. Abubakar, “Youth friendliness of sexual and reproductive health service delivery and reproductive health service utilization in Ghana,” International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 716–725, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  5. A. J. Kesterton and M. Cabral De Mello, “Generating demand and community support for sexual and reproductive health services for young people: a review of the literature and programs,” Reproductive Health, vol. 7, article 25, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Ghana Statistical Service, 2010 Population and Housing Census: Summary Report of Final Results, Ghana Statistical Service, Accra, Ghana, 2012.
  7. S.-A. Ohene, K. Johnson, S. Atunah-Jay, A. Owusu, and I. W. Borowsky, “Sexual and physical violence victimization among senior high school students in Ghana: risk and protective factors,” Social Science & Medicine, vol. 146, pp. 266–275, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General, DHHS, 2001.
  9. M. W. Lipsey and J. H. Derzon, “Predictors of violent and serious delinquency in adolescence and early adulthood: a synthesis of longitudinal research,” in Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions, R. Loeber and D. P. Farrington, Eds., pp. 86–105, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  10. M. D. Resnick, M. Ireland, and I. Borowsky, “Youth violence perpetration: what protects? what predicts? findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health,” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 424.e1–424.e10, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. S. Erulkar, “The experience of sexual coercion among young people in Kenya,” International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 182–189, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. Rudatsikira, S. Siziya, L. N. Kazembe, and A. S. Muula, “Prevalence and associated factors of physical fighting among school-going adolescents in Namibia,” Annals of General Psychiatry, vol. 6, article 18, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. W. Brown, L. Riley, A. Butchart, D. R. Meddings, L. Kann, and A. P. Harvey, “Exposure to physical and sexual violence and adverse health behaviours in African children: Results from the Global School-based Student Health Survey,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 447–455, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. J. Breiding, A. Reza, J. Gulaid et al., “Risk factors associated with sexual violence towards girls in Swaziland,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 203–210, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. H. Swahn, L. Gressard, J. B. Palmier, R. Kasirye, C. Lynch, and H. Yao, “Serious violence victimization and perpetration among youth living in the slums of Kampala, Uganda,” Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 253–259, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. L. Ybarra, S. S. Bull, J. Kiwanuka, D. R. Bangsberg, and J. Korchmaros, “Prevalence rates of sexual coercion victimization and perpetration among Uganda adolescents,” AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1392–1400, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Sommer, S. Likindikoki, and S. Kaaya, “Boys' and young men's perspectives on violence in Northern Tanzania,” Culture, Health & Sexuality, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 695–709, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. K. L. Celedonia, M. L. Wilson, H. A. El Gammal, and A. M. Hagras, “Physical fighting among Egyptian adolescents: social and demographic correlates among a nationally representative sample,” PeerJ, vol. 1, article e125, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. J. Sampson, S. W. Raudenbush, and F. Earls, “Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy,” Science, vol. 277, no. 5328, pp. 918–924, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. D. Warner and S. K. Fowler, “Strain and violence: testing a general strain theory model of community violence,” Journal of Criminal Justice, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 511–521, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Gorman-Smith and P. Tolan, “The role of exposure to community violence and developmental problems among inner-city youth,” Development and Psychopathology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 101–116, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. F. Lambert, R. C. Boyd, N. L. Cammack, and N. S. Ialongo, “Relationship proximity to victims of witnessed community violence: associations with adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. C. O'Leary, D. A. Frank, W. Grant-Knight et al., “Suicidal ideation among urban nine and ten year olds,” Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 33–39, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. Seal, A. Nguyen, and K. Beyer, “Youth exposure to violence in an urban setting,” Urban Studies Research, vol. 2014, Article ID 368047, 11 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. U. Bronfenbrenner, The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1979.
  26. T. N. Le, I. Arifuku, L. Vuong, G. Tran, D. F. Lustig, and F. Zimring, “Community mobilization and community-based participatory research to prevent youth violence among Asian and immigrant populations,” American Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 48, no. 1-2, pp. 77–88, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. S. Leff, D. E. Thomas, N. A. Vaughn et al., “Using community-based participatory research to develop the PARTNERS youth violence prevention program,” Progress in community health partnerships : research, education, and action, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 207–216, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. A. Zimmerman, S. E. Stewart, S. Morrel-Samuels, S. Franzen, and T. M. Reischl, “Youth empowerment solutions for peaceful communities: combining theory and practice in a community level violence prevention curriculum,” Health Promotion Practice, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 425–439, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. A. Yonas, P. O'Campo, J. G. Burke, and A. C. Gielen, “Exploring local perceptions of and responses to urban youth violence,” Health Promotion Practice, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 62–70, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. Agnew, “A general strain theory of community differences in crime rates,” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 123–155, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Mercy, A. Butchart, D. Farrington, and M. Cerdá, “Youth violence,” in World Report on Violence and Health, E. Krug, L. L. Dahlberg, J. A. Mercy, A. B. Zwi, and R. Lozano, Eds., pp. 25–56, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002, http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/global_campaign/en/chap2.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  32. T. Hirschi and R. Stark, “Hellfire and delinquency,” Social Problems, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 202–213, 1969. View at Google Scholar
  33. GSS, Census 2010 Summary Report of Final Results, Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), 2012.
  34. Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), Ghana Health Service (GHS), and ICF Macro, Ghana, 2009.
  35. J. N. Morris, “The domestic violence act: Ghana's bright future,” 2012, http://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/handle/2152/19643.
  36. J. Warner, “Understanding cyber-crime in Ghana: a view from below,” International Journal of Cyber Criminology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 736–749, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  37. ILO, World of Work Report 2012: Better Jobs for a Better Economy, International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland, 2012.
  38. E. M. Saewyc and R. Tonkin, “Surveying adolescents: focusing on positive development,” Paediatrics and Child Health, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 43–47, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. E. Saewyc, N. Wang, M. Chittenden, and A. Murphy, Building Resilience in Vulnerable Youth, McCreary Centre Society, 2006, http://www.mcs.bc.ca/pdf/vulnerable_youth_report.pdf?Document¼promoting_healthy_bodies_web.pdf.
  40. R. K. Merton, “Social structure and anomie,” American Sociological Review, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 672–682, 1938. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. J. B. Bingenheimer and E. Reed, “Risk for coerced sex among female youth in Ghana: roles of family context, school enrollment and relationship experience,” International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 184–195, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus