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VLSI Design
Volume 3 (1995), Issue 1, Pages 1-12

Cell Generator-Based Technology Mapping by Constructive Tree-Matching and Dynamic Covering

1Department of Electronics, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa K1S 5B6, Canada
2Bell-Northern Research, P.O. Box 3511 Station C, Ottawa K1Y 4H7, Canada

Received 5 July 1993; Accepted 25 September 1993

Copyright © 1995 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Technology mapping is the final step of logic synthesis which consists of mapping an optimized technology independent logic network representation into a circuit realization in a given technology. An important component of the technology mapping problem is the identification of feasible library cells for the realization of the logic operators in the logic tree. There are two main classes of such matching algorithms. Library-based matching algorithms [1–4] require that all available physical components be represented explicitly in a pattern library. Sections of the logic network are then matched against this pattern list for the identification of suitable components. In contrast, cell generator-based matching techniques [6–8] accept feasibility constraints on the complexity and quantity of physical components according to limits imposed by the target technology or the capabilities of the cell generator. Hence, individual patterns are not stored in a library and are instead generated as needed. In this paper, we present a new cell generator-based constructive matching algorithm. Because the algorithm builds matched patterns incrementally, very large cell families can be accommodated using time and space resources that are proportional to the size of the largest feasible cell pattern and not the size of the library of patterns as would be the case for library-based approaches. Also, whereas existing cell generator-based matching techniques combine the tasks of matching (identification) and covering (selection), constructive matching provides more flexibility by not restricting the covering phase. Empirical results demonstrate the increased quality of the technology-mapped circuits when larger cells are available.