Table of Contents
X-Ray Optics and Instrumentation
Volume 2010, Article ID 479631, 8 pages
Review Article

Hard X-Ray Focusing with Curved Reflective Multilayers

1X-Ray Optics Group, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble, France
2Institute for X-Ray Physics, University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany

Received 24 March 2010; Accepted 21 July 2010

Academic Editor: Ali Khounsary

Copyright © 2010 Christian Morawe and Markus Osterhoff. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the utilization of curved graded multilayer coatings as focusing elements for hard X-rays. It concentrates on the Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) focusing setup that has been developed at 3rd generation synchrotron sources worldwide. The optical performance of these devices is evaluated applying analytical and numerical approaches. The essential role of the multilayer coating and its meridional d-spacing gradient are discussed as well as important technological issues. Experimental data and examples of operational KB focusing devices and applications complement the work.