Table of Contents
X-Ray Optics and Instrumentation
Volume 2010, Article ID 856836, 15 pages
Research Article

Active Microstructured Optical Arrays of Grazing Incidence Reflectors

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
2Department of Physics, Kings College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, UK
3Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
4Scottish Microelectronics Centre, University of Edinburgh, The Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JF, UK
5Gray Cancer Institute, Old Road Campus, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX3 7DQ, UK
6Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, Randall Institute, New Hunt's House, King's College London, Guy's Campus, London, SE1 1UL, UK

Received 22 September 2009; Accepted 16 June 2010

Academic Editor: Ali Khounsary

Copyright © 2010 Richard Willingale et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The UK Smart X-Ray Optics (SXO) programme is developing active/adaptive optics for terrestrial applications. One of the technologies proposed is microstructured optical arrays (MOAs), which focus X-rays using grazing incidence reflection through consecutive aligned arrays of microscopic channels. Although such arrays are similar in concept to polycapillary and microchannel plate optics, they can be bent and adjusted using piezoelectric actuators providing control over the focusing and inherent aberrations. Custom configurations can be designed, using ray tracing and finite element analysis, for applications from sub-keV to several-keV X-rays, and the channels of appropriate aspect ratios can be made using deep silicon etching. An exemplar application will be in the microprobing of biological cells and tissue samples using Ti Kα radiation (4.5 keV) in studies related to radiation-induced cancers. This paper discusses the optical design, modelling, and manufacture of such optics.