Enabling FAIR Data in the Earth, Space, and Environmental Sciences
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Advances in Astronomy publishes in all areas of astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology, and accepts observational and theoretical investigations into celestial objects and the wider universe.
Chief Editor, Professor Trigo-Rodríguez (ICE, IEEC-CSIC), has a background in the formation of primitive solar system minor bodies, the study of their fragments in space and the analysis of their surviving rocks that arrived on the Earth.
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A Numerical Approach to Study Ablation of Large Bolides: Application to Chelyabinsk
In this study, we investigate the ablation properties of bolides capable of producing meteorites. The casual dashcam recordings from many locations of the Chelyabinsk superbolide associated with the atmospheric entry of an 18 m in diameter near-Earth object (NEO) have provided an excellent opportunity to reconstruct its atmospheric trajectory, deceleration, and heliocentric orbit. In this study, we focus on the study of the ablation properties of the Chelyabinsk bolide on the basis of its deceleration and fragmentation. We explore whether meteoroids exhibiting abrupt fragmentation can be studied by analyzing segments of the trajectory that do not include a disruption episode. We apply that approach to the lower part of the trajectory of the Chelyabinsk bolide to demonstrate that the obtained parameters are consistent. To do that, we implemented a numerical (Runge–Kutta) method appropriate for deriving the ablation properties of bolides based on observations. The method was successfully tested with the cases previously published in the literature. Our model yields fits that agree with observations reasonably well. It also produces a good fit to the main observed characteristics of Chelyabinsk superbolide and provides its averaged ablation coefficient σ = 0.034 s2 km−2. Our study also explores the main implications for impact hazard, concluding that tens of meters in diameter NEOs encountering the Earth in grazing trajectories and exhibiting low geocentric velocities are penetrating deeper into the atmosphere than previously thought and, as such, are capable of producing meteorites and even damage on the ground.
Modification of Gravitational Field Equation due to Invariance of Light Speed and New System of Universe Evolution
We make a systematic examination of the basic theory of general relativity and reemphasize the meaning of coordinates. Firstly, we prove that Einsteinʼs gravitational field equation has the light speed invariant solution and black holes are not an inevitable prediction of general relativity. Second, we show that the coupling coefficient of the gravitational field equation is not unique and can be modified as to replace the previous , distinguish gravitational mass from the inertial mass, and prove that dark matter and dark energy are not certain existence and the expansion and contraction of the universe are proven cyclic, and a new distance-redshift relation which is more practical is derived. After that, we show that galaxies and celestial bodies are formed by gradual growth rather than by the accumulation of existing matter and prove that new matter is generating gradually in the interior of celestial bodies. For example, the radius of the Earth increases by 0.5 mm every year, and its mass increases by 1.2 trillion tons. A more reasonable derivation of the precession of planetary orbits is given, and the evolution equation of planetary orbits in the expanding space-time is also given. In a word, an alive universe unfolds in front of readers and the current cosmological difficulties are given new interpretations.
Conformable Fractional Models of the Stellar Helium Burning via Artificial Neural Networks
The helium burning phase represents the second stage that the star used to consume nuclear fuel in its interior. In this stage, the three elements, carbon, oxygen, and neon, are synthesized. The present paper is twofold: firstly, it develops an analytical solution to the system of the conformable fractional differential equations of the helium burning network, where we used, for this purpose, the series expansion method and obtained recurrence relations for the product abundances, that is, helium, carbon, oxygen, and neon. Using four different initial abundances, we calculated 44 gas models covering the range of the fractional parameter with step . We found that the effects of the fractional parameter on the product abundances are small which coincides with the results obtained by a previous study. Secondly, we introduced the mathematical model of the neural network (NN) and developed a neural network algorithm to simulate the helium burning network using a feed-forward process. A comparison between the NN and the analytical models revealed very good agreement for all gas models. We found that NN could be considered as a powerful tool to solve and model nuclear burning networks and could be applied to the other nuclear stellar burning networks.
Assessment of Near-Earth Asteroid Deflection Techniques via Spherical Fuzzy Sets
Extensions of fuzzy sets to broader contexts constitute one of the leading areas of research in the context of problems in artificial intelligence. Their aim is to address decision-making problems in the real world whenever obtaining accurate and sufficient data is not a straightforward task. In this way, spherical fuzzy sets were recently introduced as a step beyond to modelize such problems more precisely on the basis of the human nature, thus expanding the space of membership levels, which are defined under imprecise circumstances. The main goal in this study is to apply the spherical fuzzy set version of Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), a well-established multicriteria decision-making approach, in the context of planetary defense. As of the extraction of knowledge from a group of experts in the field of near-Earth asteroids, they rated four deflection technologies of asteroids (kinetic impactor, ion beam deflection, enhanced gravity tractor, and laser ablation) that had been previously assessed by means of the classical theory of fuzzy series. This way, a comparative study was carried out whose most significant results are the kinetic impactor being the most suitable alternative and the spherical fuzzy set version of the TOPSIS approach behaves more sensitively than the TOPSIS procedure for triangular fuzzy sets with regard to the information provided by our group of experts.
Bouncing Cosmology in Gravity with Logarithmic Trace Term
This study is devoted to explore bouncing cosmology in the context of theory of gravity. For this purpose, a Gauss–Bonnet cosmological model with logarithmic trace term is considered. In particular, the possibility of obtaining bouncing solutions by considering two equations of state parameters is investigated. A graphical analysis is provided for analyzing the obtained bouncing solutions. The energy conditions are discussed in detail. It is interesting to notice that null and strong energy conditions are violated near the neighborhood of bouncing points justifying the accelerating universe in the light of the recent observational data. The behavior of the scale factor, red shift function, deceleration parameter, and Hubble parameter is also debated. An important feature of the current study is the discussion of conservation equation in gravity. The possibility of some suitable constraint equations which recover the standard conservation equation is discussed, and all the free parameters are assumed accordingly. All the results in this study suggest that the proposed gravity model provides good bouncing solutions with the chosen EoS parameters.
Fault Tolerance for Active Surface System with Actuator Faults
The QiTai Radio Telescope (QTT) will be equipped with the active surface adjustment system (ASAS) to correct the main reflector deformation caused by environmental loading. In order to guarantee the stability and performance of the active surface system under fault conditions, it is necessary to adopt the fault-tolerant method when actuator faults have occurred. In this paper, a fault control method based on actuator faults weighting is proposed to solve the active surface fault control problem. According to the coordinates of the adjustable points of the panels corresponding to the faulty actuators, a new paraboloid is fitted by a weighted health matrix, and the fitting surface is taken as the target to adjust the surface shape.