### Article of the Year 2021

Subsurface Thermal Modeling of Oxia Planum, Landing Site of ExoMars 2022

Read the full article#### Journal profile

*Advances in Astronomy* publishes in all areas of astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology, and accepts observational and theoretical investigations into celestial objects and the wider universe.

#### Editor spotlight

Chief Editor, Professor Trigo-Rodríguez (ICE, IEEC-CSIC), has a background in the formation of primitive solar system minor bodies, the study of their fragments in space and the analysis of their surviving rocks that arrived on the Earth.

#### Special Issues

## Latest Articles

More articlesThe Restricted Six-Body Problem with Stable Equilibrium Points and a Rhomboidal Configuration

We explore the central configuration of the rhomboidal restricted six-body problem in Newtonian gravity, which has four primaries (where ) at the vertices of the rhombus , , , and , respectively, and a fifth mass is at the point of intersection of the diagonals of the rhombus, which is placed at the center of the coordinate system (i.e., at the origin ). The primaries at the rhombus’s opposite vertices are assumed to be equal, that is, and . After writing equations of motion, we express , and in terms of mass parameters and . Finally, we find the bounds on and for positive masses. In the second part of this article, we investigate the motion and different features of a test particle (sixth body ) with infinitesimal mass that moves under the gravitational effect of the five primaries in the rhomboidal configuration. All four cases have 16, 12, 20, and 12 equilibrium points, with case-I, case-II, and case-III having stable equilibrium points. A significant shift in the position and the number of equilibrium points was found in four cases with the variations of mass parameters and . The regions for the possible motion of test particles have been discovered. It has also been observed that as the Jacobian constant increases, the permissible region of motion expands. We also have numerically verified the linear stability analysis for different cases, which shows the presence of stable equilibrium points.

Artificial Controlling of the Collinear Liberation Points Using Lorentz Force in the Restricted Three-Body Problem

This work studies the possibility of generating artificial collinear liberation points for the planar circular restricted three-body problem using Lorentz force affecting a charged spacecraft due to the magnetic field of a planet. It is considered to be a magnetic dipole inclined by angle *α* with the spin axis of the planet. The acceleration components for Lorentz force are first derived in an inertial planet-center coordinate system. Then, they are transformed into the rotating coordinate system of the three-body system, with the planet naturally the smaller primary in a planet-Sun system. The equations for the liberation points are derived including the charge per unit mass as the controlling parameter. Finally, the values of the charge per unit mass required for controlling the collinear liberation point positions are derived. A numerical application for the Sun-Jupiter system is introduced and the relation between the position of the artificial liberation point and the charge per unit mass is presented graphically.

A High-Precision Dynamic Six Degree-of-Freedom Pose Measurement of the Subreflectors of Large Antennas Based on a Position Sensitive Detector and Laser Array

Subreflector misalignment of a large steerable radio telescope induces a pointing error and reduces the gain of the antenna system. To improve the antenna’s operational efficiency, it is necessary to measure and adjust the position and attitude of the subreflector in real time. In this paper, a method based on a position sensitive detector (PSD) and laser array without an optical system is proposed to measure the six degree-of-freedom (DOF) poses of the subreflector. The laser emitted by the laser module array ensures that the PSD can be covered as it moves with the subreflector, and the PSD can obtain more than three laser beams. These ensure the measurement of all attitude changes of a large-aperture antenna subreflector. The two-dimensional coordinates of the centroids of three laser spots are extracted using the PSD, and then the bursa model is established to complete the coordinate transformation. Finally, the 6-DOF attitude information of the antenna subreflector is obtained. The results of a 6.05 m measurement simulation show that it can obtain high 6-DOF PSD attitude information. The experimental results show that the 6-DOF position and attitude information of the subreflector at a distance of 5.78 m can be obtained within seconds. Moreover, the error of the translation is within 0.014 mm and the error of the rotation is within 0.37^{°}. This method can meet the pose measurement requirements of the subreflector.

Analysis of ∼10^{6} Spiral Galaxies from Four Telescopes Shows Large-Scale Patterns of Asymmetry in Galaxy Spin Directions

The ability to collect unprecedented amounts of astronomical data has enabled the nomical data has enabled the stu scientific questions that were impractical to study in the pre-information era. This study uses large datasets collected by four different robotic telescopes to profile the large-scale distribution of the spin directions of spiral galaxies. These datasets cover the Northern and Southern hemispheres, in addition to data acquired from space by the Hubble Space Telescope. The data were annotated automatically by a fully symmetric algorithm, as well as manually through a long labor-intensive process, leading to a dataset of nearly galaxies. The data show possible patterns of asymmetric distribution of the spin directions, and the patterns agree between the different telescopes. The profiles also agree when using automatic or manual annotation of the galaxies, showing very similar large-scale patterns. Combining all data from all telescopes allows the most comprehensive analysis of its kind to date in terms of both the number of galaxies and the footprint size. The results show a statistically significant profile that is consistent across all telescopes. The instruments used in this study are DECam, HST, SDSS, and Pan-STARRS. The paper also discusses possible sources of bias and analyzes the design of previous work that showed different results. Further research will be required to understand and validate these preliminary observations.

Existential Properties of Algebraic Integrals of a Rigid Body

In this article, we consider kinematical considerations of a rigid body rotating around a given fixed point in a Newtonian force field exerted by an attractive center with a rotating couple about their principal axes of inertia. The kinematic equations and their well-known three elementary integrals of the problem are introduced. The existence properties of the algebraic integrals are considered. Besides, we search as a special case of the fourth algebraic integral for the problem of the rigid body’s motion around a fixed point under the action of a Newtonian force field with an orbiting couple. Lagrange’s case and Kovalevskaya’s one are obtained. The large parameter is used for satisfying the existing conditions of the algebraic integrals. The comparison between the obtained results and the previous ones is arising. The numerical solutions of the regulating system of motion are obtained utilizing the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and are plotted in some figures to illustrate the positive impact of the imposed forces and torques on the behavior of the body at any time.

Testing Correspondence between Areas with Hydrated Minerals, as Observed by CRISM/MRO, and Spots of Enhanced Subsurface Water Content, as Found by DAN along the Traverse of Curiosity

Possible correlation is studied between Water Equivalent Hydrogen (WEH) in the Martian subsurface, as measured by the DAN (Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons) instrument along the Curiosity traverse, and the presence of hydrated minerals on the surface, as seen from the orbit by CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) instrument onboard MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter). Cross-analysis of the subsurface WEH values from DAN passive measurements with the distribution of hydrated minerals over the surface of Gale crater according to Specialized Browse Product Mosaics is performed for the initial 20 km part of traverse. As a result, we found an increase up to 0.4 wt% of the mean WEH value for the surface areas with the spectral signatures of polyhydrated sulfates. The increase is shown to be higher with the more prominent spectral signature on the surface. Similar WEH increase for the two other types of hydrated minerals, such as monohydrated sulfates and phyllosilicates, was not found for the tested part of the traverse. Polyhydrated sulfates being a part of the sedimentary deposits composing the surface of Gale crater should have considerable thickness that is necessary for the subsurface neutron sensing by DAN measurements.