Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Astronomy
Volume 2010, Article ID 478910, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/478910
Review Article

Gravitational Lensing as a Probe of Cold Dark Matter Subhalos

Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden

Received 30 April 2009; Accepted 10 September 2009

Academic Editor: Regina Schulte-Ladbeck

Copyright © 2010 Erik Zackrisson and Teresa Riehm. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. Komatsu, J. Dunkley, M. R. Nolta et al., “Five-year wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe observations: cosmological interpretation,” The Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, vol. 180, no. 2, pp. 330–376, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. V. Springel, J. Wang, M. Vogelsberger et al., “The Aquarius project: the subhaloes of galactic haloes,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 391, no. 4, pp. 1685–1711, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Zemp, J. Diemand, M. Kuhlen et al., “The graininess of dark matter haloes,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 394, no. 2, pp. 641–659, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Klypin, A. V. Kravtsov, O. Valenzuela, and F. Prada, “Where are the missing galactic satellites?” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 522, no. 1, pp. 82–92, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. Moore, S. Ghigna, F. Governato et al., “Dark matter substructure within galactic halos,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 524, no. 1, pp. L19–L22, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. B. Tully, R. S. Somerville, N. Trentham, and M. A. W. Verheijen, “Squelched galaxies and dark halos,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 569, no. 2, pp. 573–581, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. Verde, S. P. Oh, and R. Jimenez, “The abundance of dark galaxies,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 336, no. 2, pp. 541–549, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Bode, J. P. Ostriker, and N. Turok, “Halo formation in warm dark matter models,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 556, no. 1, pp. 93–107, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. N. Spergel and P. J. Steinhardt, “Observational evidence for self-Interacting cold dark matter,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 84, no. 17, pp. 3760–3763, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. W. Hu, R. Barkana, and A. Gruzinov, “Fuzzy cold dark matter: the wave properties of ultralight particles,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 1158–1161, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. A. R. Cembranos, J. L. Feng, A. Rajaraman, and F. Takayama, “Superweakly interacting massive particle solutions to small scale structure problems,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 95, no. 18, Article ID 181301, 4 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Kamionkowski and A. R. Liddle, “The dearth of halo dwarf galaxies: is there power on short scales?” Physical Review Letters, vol. 84, no. 20, pp. 4525–4528, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. S. Bullock, A. V. Kravtsov, and D. H. Weinberg, “Reionization and the abundance of galactic satellites,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 539, no. 2, pp. 517–521, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. S. Somerville, “Can photoionization squelching resolve the substructure crisis?” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 572, no. 1, pp. L23–L26, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. J. Benson, C. S. Frenk, C. G. Lacey, C. M. Baugh, and S. Cole, “The effects of photoionization on galaxy formation. II. Satellite galaxies in the Local Group,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 333, no. 1, pp. 177–190, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. V. Kravtsov, O. Y. Gnedin, and A. A. Klypin, “The tumultuous lives of galactic dwarfs and the missing satellites problem,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 609, no. 2, pp. 482–497, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. Moore, J. Diemand, P. Madau, M. Zemp, and J. Stadel, “Globular clusters, satellite galaxies and stellar haloes from early dark matter peaks,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 368, no. 2, pp. 563–570, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. Trentham, O. Möller, and E. Ramirez-Ruiz, “Completely dark galaxies: their existence, properties and strategies for finding them,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 322, no. 3, pp. 658–668, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. D. Simon and M. Geha, “The kinematics of the ultra-faint Milky Way satellites: solving the missing satellite problem,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 670, no. 1, pp. 313–331, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. J. Tollerud, J. S. Bullock, L. E. Strigari, and B. Willman, “Hundreds of Milky Way satellites? Luminosity bias in the satellite luminosity function,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 688, no. 1, pp. 277–289, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. M. Walsh, B. Willman, and H. Jerjen, “The invisibles: a detection algorithm to trace the faintest Milky Way satellites,” The Astronomical Journal, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 450–469, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. E. Koposov, J. Yoo, H.-W. Rix, D. H. Weinberg, A. V. Macciò, and J. Miralda-Escudé, “A quantitative explanation of the observed population of Milky Way satellite galaxies,” The Astronomical Journal, vol. 696, no. 2, pp. 2179–2194, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. A. V. Macciò, X. Kang, F. Fontanot, R. S. Somerville, S. E. Koposov, and P. Monaco, “Luminosity function and radial distribution of Milky Way Satellites in a LCDM Universe,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0903.4681.
  24. T. Ishiyama, T. Fukushige, and J. Makino, “Environmental effect on the subhalo abundance—a solution to the missing dwarf problem,” Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. L13–L18, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. Ishiyama, T. Fukushige, and J. Makino, “Variation of the subhalo abundance in dark matter halos,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 696, no. 2, pp. 2115–2125, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. L. Gao, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, F. Stoehr, and V. Springel, “The subhalo populations of ΛCDM dark haloes,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 355, no. 3, pp. 819–834, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. M. Green, S. Hofmann, and D. J. Schwarz, “The first WIMPy halos,” Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, vol. 8, article 3, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. A. Loeb and M. Zaldarriaga, “Small-scale power spectrum of cold dark matter,” Physical Review D, vol. 71, no. 10, Article ID 103520, 7 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Diemand, B. Moore, and J. Stadel, “Earth-mass dark-matter haloes as the first structures in the early Universe,” Nature, vol. 433, no. 7024, pp. 389–391, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Profumo, K. Sigurdson, and M. Kamionkowski, “What mass are the smallest protohalos?” Physical Review Letters, vol. 97, no. 3, Article ID 031301, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. V. Berezinsky, V. Dokuchaev, and Y. Eroshenko, “Remnants of dark matter clumps,” Physical Review D, vol. 77, no. 8, Article ID 083519, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. Bringmann, “Particle models and the small-scale structure of dark matter,” New Journal of Physics, vol. 11, no. 10, Article ID 105027, 18 pages, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. C. J. Hogan and M. J. Rees, “Axion miniclusters,” Physics Letters B, vol. 205, no. 2-3, pp. 228–230, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. Hooper, M. Kaplinghat, L. E. Strigari, and K. M. Zurek, “MeV dark matter and small scale structure,” Physical Review D, vol. 76, no. 10, Article ID 103515, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. Madau, J. Diemand, and M. Kuhlen, “Dark matter subhalos and the dwarf satellites of the Milky Way,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 679, no. 2, pp. 1260–1271, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. H. Weinberg, S. Colombi, R. Davé, and N. Katz, “Baryon dynamics, dark matter substructure, and galaxies,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 678, no. 1, pp. 6–21, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Ghigna, B. Moore, F. Governato, G. Lake, T. Quinn, and J. Stadel, “Density profiles and substructure of dark matter halos: converging results at ultra-high numerical resolution,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 544, no. 2, pp. 616–628, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. G. de Lucia, G. Kauffmann, V. Springel et al., “Substructures in cold dark matter haloes,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 348, no. 1, pp. 333–344, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. D. Ludlow, J. F. Navarro, V. Springel, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, and A. Helmi, “The unorthodox orbits of substructure halos,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 692, no. 1, pp. 931–941, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. J. Diemand, M. Kuhlen, and P. Madau, “Formation and evolution of galaxy dark matter halos and their substructure,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 667, no. 2, pp. 859–877, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. E. Zackrisson, T. Riehm, O. Möller, K. Wiik, and P. Nurmi, “Strong lensing by subhalos in the dwarf galaxy mass range. I. Image separations,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 684, no. 2, pp. 804–810, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. Rusin, C. S. Kochanek, and C. R. Keeton, “Self-similar models for the mass profiles of early-type lens galaxies,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 595, no. 1, pp. 29–42, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. L. V. E. Koopmans, T. Treu, A. S. Bolton, S. Burles, and L. A. Moustakas, “The Sloan Lens ACS survey. III. The structure and formation of early-type galaxies and their evolution since z 1,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 649, no. 2, pp. 599–615, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. O. Y. Gnedin, A. V. Kravtsov, A. A. Klypin, and D. Nagai, “Response of dark matter halos to condensation of baryons: cosmological simulations and improved adiabatic contraction model,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 616, no. 1, pp. 16–26, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. V. Macciò, B. Moore, J. Stadel, and J. Diemand, “Radial distribution and strong lensing statistics of satellite galaxies and substructure using high-resolution ΛCDM hydrodynamical simulations,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 366, no. 4, pp. 1529–1538, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Gustafsson, M. Fairbairn, and J. Sommer-Larsen, “Baryonic pinching of galactic dark matter halos,” Physical Review D, vol. 74, no. 12, Article ID 123522, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Kampakoglou, “An improved model for contraction of dark matter haloes in response to condensation of baryons,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 369, no. 4, pp. 1988–1994, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. F. Navarro, C. S. Frenk, and S. D. M. White, “The structure of cold dark matter halos,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 462, no. 2, pp. 563–575, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. E. Hayashi, J. F. Navarro, J. E. Taylor, J. Stadel, and T. Quinn, “The structural evolution of substructure,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 584, no. 2, pp. 541–558, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Kazantzidis, L. Mayer, C. Mastropietro, J. Diemand, J. Stadel, and B. Moore, “Density profiles of cold dark matter substructure: implications for the missing-satellites problem,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 608, no. 2, pp. 663–679, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. Diemand, M. Kuhlen, P. Madau et al., “Clumps and streams in the local dark matter distribution,” Nature, vol. 454, no. 7205, pp. 735–738, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. F. Navarro, E. Hayashi, C. Power et al., “The inner structure of ?CDM haloes. III. Universality and asymptotic slopes,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 349, no. 3, pp. 1039–1051, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. Stadel, D. Potter, B. Moore et al., “Quantifying the heart of darkness with GHALO—a multibillion particle simulation of a galactic halo,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 398, no. 1, pp. L21–L25, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  54. J. F. Navarro, A. Ludlow, V. Springel et al., “The diversity and similarity of simulated cold dark matter halos,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.1522.
  55. L. A. Moustakas, K. Abazajian, A. Benson et al., “Strong gravitational lensing probes of the particle nature of dark matter,” Astro2010: The Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey, Science White Papers, no. 214, http://arxiv.org/abs/0902.3219.
  56. E. R. Siegel, M. P. Hertzberg, and J. N. Fry, “Probing dark matter substructure with pulsar timing,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 382, no. 2, pp. 879–885, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. R. Siegel, “What millisecond pulsars can tell us about matter in the galaxy,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0801.3458.
  58. R. Di Stefano, “Mesolensing: high-probability lensing without large optical depth,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 684, no. 1, pp. 46–58, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. E. Zackrisson and T. Riehm, “High-redshift microlensing and the spatial distribution of dark matter in the form of MACHOs,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 475, no. 2, pp. 453–465, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. Chen, A. V. Kravtsov, and C. R. Keeton, “Lensing optical depths for substructure and isolated dark matter halos,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 592, no. 1, pp. 24–31, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. R. B. Metcalf, “Testing ΛCDM with gravitational lensing constraints on small-scale structure,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 622, no. 1, pp. 72–80, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. R. B. Metcalf, “The importance of intergalactic structure to gravitationally lensed quasars,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 629, no. 2, pp. 673–679, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. Miranda and A. V. Macciò, “Constraining warm dark matter using QSO gravitational lensing,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 382, no. 3, pp. 1225–1232, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. C. S. Kochanek, “The implications of lenses for galaxy structure,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 373, no. 2, pp. 354–368, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. S. Mao, “Gravitational microlensing by a single star plus external shear,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 389, no. 1, pp. 63–67, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. P. Schneider and A. Weiss, “The gravitational lens equation near cusps,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 260, no. 1-2, pp. 1–13, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  67. A. F. Zakharov, “On the magnification of gravitational lens images near cusps,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 293, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  68. R. Blandford and R. Narayan, “Fermat's principle, caustics, and the classification of gravitational lens images,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 310, pp. 568–582, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  69. S. Mao and P. Schneider, “Evidence for substructure in lens galaxies?” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 295, no. 3, pp. 587–594, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. R. B. Metcalf and P. Madau, “Compound gravitational lensing as a probe of dark matter substructure within galaxy halos,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 563, no. 1, pp. 9–20, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. Chiba, “Probing dark matter substructure in lens galaxies,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 565, no. 1, pp. 17–23, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. N. Dalal and C. S. Kochanek, “Direct detection of cold dark matter substructure,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 572, no. 1, pp. 25–33, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. R. B. Metcalf and H. Zhao, “Flux ratios as a probe of dark substructures in quadruple-image gravitational lenses,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 567, no. 1, pp. L5–L8, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. C. R. Keeton, B. S. Gaudi, and A. O. Petters, “Identifying lenses with small-scale structure. I. Cusp lenses,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 598, no. 1, pp. 138–161, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. C. S. Kochanek and N. Dalal, “Tests for substructure in gravitational lenses,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 610, no. 1, pp. 69–79, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. Bradač, P. Schneider, M. Lombardi, M. Steinmetz, L. V. E. Koopmans, and J. F. Navarro, “The signature of substructure on gravitational lensing in the ΛCDM cosmological model,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 423, no. 3, pp. 797–809, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. A. R. Zentner and J. S. Bullock, “Halo substructure and the power spectrum,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 598, no. 1, pp. 49–72, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. A. Amara, R. B. Metcalf, T. J. Cox, and J. P. Ostriker, “Simulations of strong gravitational lensing with substructure,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 367, no. 4, pp. 1367–1378, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. V. Macciò and M. Miranda, “The effect of low-mass substructures on the cusp lensing relation,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 368, no. 2, pp. 599–608, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. D. D. Xu, S. Mao, J. Wang et al., “Effects of dark matter substructures on gravitational lensing: results from the Aquarius simulations,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 398, no. 3, pp. 1235–1253, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  81. R. Mittal, R. Porcas, and O. Wucknitz, “Free-free absorption in the gravitational lens JVAS B0218+357,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 465, no. 2, pp. 405–415, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. P. L. Schechter and J. Wambsganss, “Quasar microlensing at high magnification and the role of dark matter: enhanced fluctuations and suppressed saddle points,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 580, no. 2, pp. 685–695, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. L. V. E. Koopmans and A. G. de Bruyn, “Microlensing of multiply-imaged compact radio sources: evidence for compact halo objects in the disk galaxy of B1600+434,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 358, no. 3, pp. 793–811, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. M. Chiba, T. Minezaki, N. Kashikawa, H. Kataza, and K. T. Inoue, “Subaru mid-infrared imaging of the quadruple lenses PG 1115+080 and B1422+231: limits on substructure lensing,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 627, no. 1, pp. 53–61, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. H. Sugai, A. Kawai, A. Shimono et al., “Integral field spectroscopy of the quadruply lensed quasar 1RXS J1131-1231: new light on lens substructures,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 660, no. 2, pp. 1016–1022, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. T. Minezaki, M. Chiba, N. Kashikawa, K. T. Inoue, and H. Kataza, “Subaru mid-infrared imaging of the quadruple lenses. II. unveiling lens structure of MG0414+0534 and Q2237+030,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 697, no. 1, pp. 610–618, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. C. L. MacLeod, C. S. Kochanek, and E. Agol, “Detection of a companion lens galaxy using the mid-infrared flux ratios of the gravitationally lensed quasar H1413+117,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 699, no. 2, pp. 1578–1583, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. J. Chen, “Parity dependence in strong lens systems as a probe of dark matter substructure,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 498, no. 1, pp. 49–60, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. C. D. Fassnacht, R. D. Blandford, J. G. Cohen et al., “B2045+265: a new four-image gravitational lens from class,” The Astronomical Journal, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 658–670, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. J. P. McKean, L. V. E. Koopmans, C. E. Flack et al., “High-resolution imaging of the anomalous flux ratio gravitational lens system CLASS B2045+265: dark or luminous satellites?” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 378, no. 1, pp. 109–118, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. S. E. Bryan, S. Mao, and S. T. Kay, “Luminous satellite galaxies in gravitational lenses,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 391, no. 2, pp. 959–966, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. E. M. Shin and N. W. Evans, “The effect of satellite galaxies on gravitational lensing flux ratios,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 385, no. 4, pp. 2107–2116, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. S. Mao, Y. Jing, J. P. Ostriker, and J. Weller, “Anomalous flux ratios in gravitational lenses: for or against cold dark matter?” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 604, no. 1, pp. L5–L8, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. J. Chen, E. Rozo, N. Dalal, and J. E. Taylor, “Astrometric perturbations in substructure lensing,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 659, no. 1, pp. 52–68, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. L. L. R. Williams and P. Saha, “Improper Motions in Lensed QSOs,” The Astronomical Journal, vol. 110, p. 1471, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. R. B. Metcalf, “The detection of pure dark matter objects with bent multiply imaged radio jets,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 580, no. 2, pp. 696–704, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. L. V. E. Koopmans, M. A. Garrett, R. D. Blandford, C. R. Lawrence, A. R. Patnaik, and R. W. Porcas, “2016+112: a gravitationally lensed type II quasar,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 334, no. 1, pp. 39–47, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. A. More, J. P. McKean, S. More, R. W. Porcas, L. V. E. Koopmans, and M. A. Garrett, “The role of luminous substructure in the gravitational lens system MG 2016+112,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 394, no. 1, pp. 174–190, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. A. D. Biggs, I. W. A. Browne, N. J. Jackson et al., “Radio, optical and infrared observations of CLASS B0128+437,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 350, no. 3, pp. 949–961, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. S. Peirani, C. Alard, C. Pichon, R. Gavazzi, and D. Aubert, “Numerical investigation of lens models with substructures using the perturbative method,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 390, no. 3, pp. 945–957, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. R. Blandford, G. Surpi, and T. Kundić, “Modeling galaxy lenses,” in Gravitational Lensing: Recent Progress and Future Goals, G. Tereasa, Brainerd, and C. S. Kochanek, Eds., vol. 237 of ASP Conference Proceedings, p. 65, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  102. L. V. E. Koopmans, “Gravitational imaging of cold dark matter substructures,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 363, no. 4, pp. 1136–1144, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. S. Vegetti and L. V. E. Koopmans, “Bayesian strong gravitational-lens modelling on adaptive grids: objective detection of mass substructure in Galaxies,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 392, no. 3, pp. 945–963, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. S. Vegetti and L. V. E. Koopmans, “Statistics of mass substructure from strong gravitational lensing: quantifying the mass fraction and mass function,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  105. A. Kassiola, I. Kovner, and R. D. Blandford, “Bounds on intergalactic compact objects from observations of compact radio sources,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 381, no. 1, pp. 6–13, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. J. Wambsganss and B. Paczyński, “A direct gravitational lensing test for 106M black holes in halos of galaxies,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 397, no. 1, pp. L1–L4, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. P. N. Wilkinson, D. R. Henstock, I. W. A. Browne et al., “Limits on the cosmological abundance of supermassive compact objects from a search for multiple imaging in compact radio sources,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 584–587, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. A. Yonehara, M. Umemura, and H. Susa, “Quasar mesolensing—direct probe to substructures around galaxies,” Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1059–1078, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. K. T. Inoue and M. Chiba, “Three-dimensional mapping of CDM substructure at submillimeter wavelengths,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 633, no. 1, pp. 23–28, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. K. T. Inoue and M. Chiba, “Extended source effects in substructure lensing,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 634, no. 1, pp. 77–89, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. Yu. V. Baryshev and Yu. L. Ezova, “Gravitational mesolensing by king objects and quasar-galaxy associations,” Astronomy Reports, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 436–446, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. M. Oguri, “Gravitational lens time delays: a statistical assessment of lens model dependences and implications for the global hubble constant,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 660, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. C. R. Keeton and L. A. Moustakas, “A new channel for detecting dark matter substructure in galaxies: gravitational lens time delays,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 699, no. 2, pp. 1720–1731, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. N. D. Morgan, C. S. Kochanek, E. E. Falco, and X. Dai, “Time-delay measurement for the quadruple lens RX J1131-1231,” http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0605321.
  115. R. J. Nemiroff, G. F. Marani, J. P. Norris, and J. T. Bonnell, “Limits on the cosmological abundance of supermassive compact objects from a millilensing search in gamma-ray burst data,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 580–583, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. O. S. Ougolnikov, “A search for possible mesolensing of cosmic gamma-ray bursts. II. Double and triple bursts in the BATSE catalog,” Cosmic Research, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 141–146, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. L. V. E. Koopmans, M. Auger, M. Barnabe et al., “Strong gravitational lensing as a probe of gravity, dark-matter and super-massive black holes,” Astro2010: The Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, Science White Papers, no. 159, http://arxiv.org/abs/0902.3186.
  118. R. P. van der Marel, “Intermediate-mass black holes in the Universe: a review of formation theories and observational constraints,” in Coevolution of Black Holes and Galaxies, L. C. Ho, Ed., p. 37, Cambridge University Press, London, UK, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  119. H. Zhao and J. Silk, “Dark minihalos with intermediate mass black holes,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 95, no. 1, Article ID 011301, 4 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  120. T. Kawaguchi, M. Kawasaki, T. Takayama, M. Yamaguchi, and J. Yokoyama, “Formation of intermediate-mass black holes as primordial black holes in the inflationary cosmology with running spectral index,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 388, no. 3, pp. 1426–1432, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. K. T. Inoue and M. Chiba, “Direct mapping of massive compact objects in extragalactic dark halos,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 591, no. 2, pp. L83–L86, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. M. Mapelli, A. Ferrara, and N. Rea, “Constraints on Galactic intermediate mass black holes,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 368, no. 3, pp. 1340–1350, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. B. J. Carr and M. Sakellariadou, “Dynamical constraints on dark matter in compact objects,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 516, no. 1, pp. 195–220, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. J. Yoo, J. Chanamé, and A. Gould, “The end of the MACHO era: limits on halo dark matter from stellar halo wide binaries,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 601, no. 1, pp. 311–318, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. D. P. Quinn, M. I. Wilkinson, M. J. Irwin, J. Marshall, A. Koch, and V. Belokurov, “On the reported death of the MACHO era,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 396, no. 1, pp. L11–L15, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  126. R. B. Metcalf and J. Silk, “New constraints on macroscopic compact objects as dark matter candidates from gravitational lensing of type Ia supernovae,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 98, no. 7, Article ID 071302, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus