Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Astronomy
Volume 2015, Article ID 135025, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/135025
Research Article

Cosmic Rays Report from the Structure of Space

1Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
2Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland

Received 3 June 2015; Revised 14 August 2015; Accepted 24 August 2015

Academic Editor: Alberto J. Castro-Tirado

Copyright © 2015 A. Annila. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. Amsler, K. A. Olive, K. Agashe et al., “Review of cosmic rays,” Physics Letters B, vol. 667, pp. 1–1340, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  2. W. Bietenholz, “The most powerful particles in the Universe: a cosmic smash,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.1346.
  3. R. U. Abbasi, T. Abu-Zayyad, J. F. Amman et al., “Observation of the ankle and evidence for a high-energy break in the cosmic ray spectrum,” Physics Letters B, vol. 619, no. 3-4, pp. 271–280, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. D. Hague, B. R. Becker, M. S. Gold, and J. A. J. Matthews, “Power laws and the cosmic ray energy spectrum,” Astroparticle Physics, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 455–464, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. R. Bergman and J. W. Belz, “Cosmic rays: the Second Knee and beyond,” Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. R359–R400, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Blümer, R. Engel, and J. R. Hörandel, “Cosmic rays from the knee to the highest energies,” Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 293–338, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Sokolsky, “Observation of the GZK cutoff by the HiRes experiment,” Nuclear Physics B, vol. 196, pp. 67–73, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. Matthiae, “The cosmic ray energy spectrum as measured using the Pierre Auger Observatory,” New Journal of Physics, vol. 12, Article ID 075009, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. K. Gaisser, T. Stanev, and S. Tilav, “Cosmic ray energy spectrum from measurements of air showers,” Frontiers of Physics, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 748–758, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P.-L. M. De Maupertuis, “Accord de différentes lois de la nature qui avaient jusqu'ici paru incompatibles,” in Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences de Paris, pp. 417–426, 1744. View at Google Scholar
  11. P.-L. M. De Maupertuis, “Les loix du mouvement et du repos déduites d'un principe metaphysique,” in Histoire de l'Académie Royale des Sciences et des Belles-Lettres de Berlin, pp. 267–294, 1746. View at Google Scholar
  12. P. Tuisku, T. K. Pernu, and A. Annila, “In the light of time,” Proceedings of The Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol. 465, no. 2104, pp. 1173–1198, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  13. T. Mäkelä and A. Annila, “Natural patterns of energy dispersal,” Physics of Life Reviews, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 477–498, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Y. Baryshev and P. Teerikorpi, Discovery of Cosmic Fractals, World Scientific World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 2002.
  15. A. Annila, “Least-time paths of light,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 416, no. 4, pp. 2944–2948, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Koskela and A. Annila, “Least-action perihelion precession,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 417, no. 3, pp. 1742–1746, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Annila, “Probing Mach's principle,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 423, no. 2, pp. 1973–1977, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Annila, “Space, time and machines,” International Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 16–32, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. R. Blandford, P. Simeon, and Y. Yuan, “Cosmic ray origins: an introduction,” Nuclear Physics B—Proceedings Supplements, vol. 256-257, pp. 9–22, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. P. Blasi, “Recent developments in cosmic ray physics,” Nuclear Physics B—Proceedings Supplements, vol. 256-257, pp. 36–47, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. A. M. Taylor, “UHECR composition models,” Astroparticle Physics, vol. 54, pp. 48–53, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. V. Sharma and A. Annila, “Natural process—natural selection,” Biophysical Chemistry, vol. 127, no. 1-2, pp. 123–128, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. W. Leibniz, “Brevis demonstratio erroris memorabilis Cartesii et aliorum circa legem naturae in conservatione quantitatis motus,” Acta Eruditorum Lipsiensibus, pp. 161–163, 1686. View at Google Scholar
  24. A. Annila, “The substance of gravity,” Physics Essays, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 208–218, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. A. Annila, “The meaning of mass,” International Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 67–78, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. J. Abraham, P. Abreu, M. Aglietta et al., “Measurement of the depth of maximum of extensive air showers above 1018 eV,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 104, Article ID 091101, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  27. R. Aloisio, V. Berezinsky, and P. Blasi, “Ultra high energy cosmic rays: implications of Auger data for source spectra and chemical composition,” Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, vol. 2014, no. 10, article 020, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. A. A. Watson, “High-energy cosmic rays and the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min effect,” Reports on Progress in Physics, vol. 77, no. 3, Article ID 036901, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. J. E. Clausius, “On a mechanical theorem applicable to heat,” Philosophical Magazine Series 4, vol. 40, pp. 122–127, 1870. View at Google Scholar
  30. N. L. Grigorov, V. E. Nesterov, I. D. Rapoport et al., “Studies of the energy spectra of high and ultra-high primary cosmic ray particles on the ‘Proton’ space stations,” Yadernaya Fizika, vol. 11, pp. 1058–1069, 1970. View at Google Scholar
  31. M. A. Lawrence, R. J. O. Reid, and A. A. Watson, “The cosmic ray energy spectrum above 4*1017 eV as measured by the Haverah Park array,” Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, vol. 17, pp. 733–757, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. A. K. Glasmacher, M. A. Catanese, M. C. Chantell et al., “The cosmic ray energy spectrum between 1014 and 1016 eV,” Astroparticle Physics, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 291–302, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. F. Arqueros, J. Abel Barrio, K. Bernlöhr, H. Bojahr, I. de la Calle Perez, and J. L. C. González, “Energy spectrum and chemical composition of cosmic rays between 0.3 and 10 PeV determined from the Cherenkov-light and charged-particle distributions in air showers,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 359, no. 2, pp. 682–694, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  34. M. Takeda, N. Sakaki, K. Honda et al., “Energy determination in the Akeno Giant Air Shower Array experiment,” Astroparticle Physics, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 447–462, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. Antoni, W. D. Apel, A. F. Badea et al., “KASCADE measurements of energy spectra for elemental groups of cosmic rays: results and open problems,” Astroparticle Physics, vol. 24, no. 1-2, pp. 1–25, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Amenomori, X. J. Bi, D. Chen et al., “The all-particle spectrum of primary cosmic rays in the wide energy range from 1014 to 1017 eV observed with the Tibet-III air-shower array,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 678, no. 2, pp. 1165–1179, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. P. Garyaka, R. M. Martirosov, S. V. Ter-Antonyan et al., “An all-particle primary energy spectrum in the 3-200 PeV energy range,” Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, vol. 35, no. 11, Article ID 115201, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. U. Abbasi, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen et al., “First observation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin suppression,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 100, no. 10, Article ID 101101, 5 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. J. Abraham, P. Abreu, M. Aglietta et al., “Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4×1019 eV,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 101, Article ID 061101, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  40. R. U. Abbasi, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Al-Seady et al., “Measurement of the flux of ultra high energy cosmic rays by the stereo technique,” Astroparticle Physics, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 53–60, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Y. S. Yoon, H. S. Ahn, P. S. Allison et al., “Cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra from the first CREAM flight,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 728, no. 2, pp. 122–130, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. W. D. Apel, J. C. Arteaga-Velázquez, K. Bekk et al., “The spectrum of high-energy cosmic rays measured with KASCADE-Grande,” Astroparticle Physics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 183–194, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. F. Berezhnev, D. Besson, N. M. Budnev et al., “The Tunka-133 EAS Cherenkov light array: Status of 2011,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol. 692, pp. 98–105, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. Abu-Zayyad, R. Aida, M. Allen et al., “The cosmic ray energy spectrum observed with the surface detector of the telescope array experiment,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 768, no. 1, article L1, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. R. Abbasi, Y. Abdou, M. Ackermann et al., “IceTop: the surface component of IceCube,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol. 700, pp. 188–220, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. A. Sandage, “The redshift-distance relation. IX—perturbation of the very nearby velocity field by the mass of the Local Group,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 307, pp. 1–19, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. P. Teerikorpi, A. D. Chernin, I. D. Karachentsev, and M. J. Valtonen, “Dark energy in the environments of the Local Group, the M 81 group, and the CenA group: the normalized Hubble diagram,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 483, no. 2, pp. 383–387, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. A. Berg and C. N. Lindner, “Electron-proton bremsstrahlung,” Nuclear Physics, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 259–279, 1961. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. Greisen, “End to the cosmic-ray spectrum?” Physical Review Letters, vol. 16, no. 17, pp. 748–750, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. G. T. Zatsepin and V. A. Kuzmin, “Upper limit of the spectrum of cosmic rays,” Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, vol. 4, pp. 78–80, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  51. V. Berezinsky, A. Gazizov, and S. Grigorieva, “On astrophysical solution to ultrahigh energy cosmic rays,” Physical Review D, vol. 74, no. 4, Article ID 043005, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. E. Noether, “Invariante variationsprobleme,” in Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen. Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse, pp. 235–257, 1918, Translation: E. Noether, “Invariant variation problem,” in Transport Theory and Statistical Physics, vol. 1, pp. 183–207, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  53. A. Annila, “All in action,” Entropy, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 2333–2358, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  54. J. Palmer, “Parmenides,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, E. N. Zalta, Ed., CSLI, 2008, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/parmenides/. View at Google Scholar
  55. E. Hubble, “A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 168–173, 1929. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. Wolfram Mathematica, 2008, http://www.wolfram.com/mathematica/.
  57. E. S. Seo, F. B. Mcdonald, N. Lal, and W. R. Webber, “Study of cosmic-ray H and He isotopes AT 23 AU,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 432, no. 2, pp. 656–664, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. Boezio, P. Carlson, T. Francke et al., “The cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra between 0.4 and 200 GV,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 518, no. 1, pp. 457–472, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. Alcaraz, B. Alpat, G. Ambrosi et al., “Cosmic protons,” Physics Letters B, vol. 490, pp. 27–35, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  60. W. Menn, M. Hof, O. Reimer et al., “The absolute flux of protons and helium at the top of the atmosphere using IMAX,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 533, no. 1, pp. 281–297, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. J. Z. Wang, E. S. Seo, K. Anraku et al., “Measurement of cosmic-ray hydrogen and helium and their isotopic composition with the BESS experiment,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 564, no. 1, pp. 244–259, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. Z. D. Myers, E. S. Seo, J. Z. Wang et al., “Cosmic ray 1H and 2H spectra from BESS 98,” Advances in Space Research, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 151–155, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. Y. Shikaze, S. Haino, K. Abe et al., “Measurements of 0.2–20 GeV/n cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra from 1997 through 2002 with the BESS spectrometer,” Astroparticle Physics, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 154–167, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. K. Abe, H. Fuke, S. Haino et al., “Measurement of the cosmic-ray low-energy antiproton spectrum with the first BESS-Polar Antarctic flight,” Physics Letters B, vol. 670, no. 2, pp. 103–108, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. K. C. Kim, K. Abe, H. Fuke et al., “Cosmic ray 2H/1H ratio measured from BESS in 2000 during solar maximum,” Advances in Space Research, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 234–237, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. O. Adriani, G. Barbarino, G. A. Bazilevskaya et al., “Measurement of the isotopic composition of hydrogen and helium nuclei in cosmic rays with the PAMELA experiment,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 770, no. 1, article 2, 9 pages, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  67. X. Chi and A. W. Wolfendale, “Gamma rays from the magellanic clouds and the origin of cosmic rays,” Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 795–804, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort et al., “Detection of the characteristic pion-decay signature in supernova remnants,” Science, vol. 339, no. 6121, pp. 807–811, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. A. Castellina and F. Donato, Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems, T. D. Oswalt, I. S. McLean, H. E. Bond, L. French, P. Kalas, M. Barstow, G. F. Gilmore, and W. Keel, Eds., Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2012.
  70. P. O. Lagage and C. J. Cesarsky, “The maximum energy of cosmic rays accelerated by supernova shocks,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 125, pp. 249–257, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  71. M. E. McCulloch, “Modelling the flyby anomalies using a modification of inertia,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, vol. 389, no. 1, pp. L57–L60, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. L. Rosales, “The Pioneer's acceleration anomaly and Hubble's constant,” http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0212019.
  73. R. P. Feynman, F. B. Morinigo, W. G. Wagner, and B. Hatfield, Feynman Lectures on Gravitation, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass, USA, 1995.
  74. S. Basilakos and J. Solà, “Effective equation of state for running vacuum: ‘Mirage’ quintessence and phantom dark energy,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 437, no. 4, pp. 3331–3342, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. C. M. Wilson, G. Johansson, A. Pourkabirian et al., “Observation of the dynamical Casimir effect in a superconducting circuit,” Nature, vol. 479, no. 7373, pp. 376–379, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. E. Fermi, “Galactic magnetic fields and the origin of cosmic radiation,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 119, pp. 1–6, 1954. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. M. P. Do Carmo, Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1976. View at MathSciNet
  78. A. Renshaw, K. Abe, Y. Hayato et al., “First indication of terrestrial matter effects on solar neutrino oscillation,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 112, no. 9, Article ID 091805, 6 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  79. D. Maurin, F. Melot, and R. Taillet, “A database of charged cosmic rays,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 569, article A32, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus