Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Astronomy
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 8416945, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8416945
Research Article

Star Formation Law at Sub-kpc Scale in the Elliptical Galaxy Centaurus A as Seen by ALMA

1Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Physics Department, Faculty of Science, AL-Nahrain University, Baghdad 10072, Iraq
3Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan

Correspondence should be addressed to Jazeel H. Azeez; moc.oohay@niessuhleezaj

Received 28 January 2017; Accepted 19 April 2017; Published 13 June 2017

Academic Editor: Dean Hines

Copyright © 2017 Jazeel H. Azeez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Wiklind, F. Combes, C. Henkel, and F. Wyrowski, “Molecular gas in the elliptical galaxy NGC 759: Interferometric CO observations,” Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 323, no. 3, pp. 727–738, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. K. Yi, S.-J. Yoon, S. Kaviraj et al., “Galaxy Evolution Explorer ultraviolet color-magnitude relations and evidence of recent star formation in early-type galaxies,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 619, p. L111, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. R. Morganti, P. T. De Zeeuw, T. A. Oosterloo et al., “Neutral hydrogen in nearby elliptical and lenticular galaxies: the continuing formation of early-type galaxies,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 371, no. 1, pp. 157–169, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. S. Kaviraj, K. Schawinski, J. E. G. Devriendt et al., “UV-optical colors as probes of early-type galaxy evolution,” The Astrophysical Journal: Supplement Series, vol. 173, no. 2, p. 619, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. M. Sarzi, R. Bacon, M. Cappellari et al., “Recent star formation in nearby early-type galaxies,” in Pathways Through an Eclectic Universe, J. H. Knapen, T. J. Mahoney, and A. Vazdekis, Eds., vol. 390 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, p. 218, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  6. S. Onodera, N. Kuno, T. Tosaki et al., “Breakdown of kennicutt–Schmidt law at giant molecular cloud scales in M33,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 722, p. L127, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. L. H. Wei, S. N. Vogel, S. J. Kannappan, A. J. Baker, D. V. Stark, and S. Laine, “The relationship between molecular gas and star formation in low-mass E/S0 galaxies,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 725, no. 1, pp. L62–L67, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. M. Young, M. Bureau, T. A. Davis et al., “The ATLAS3D project – IV. The molecular gas content of early-type galaxies,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 414, no. 2, pp. 940–967, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. A. Crocker, M. Krips, M. Bureau et al., “The ATLAS3D project – XI. Dense molecular gas properties of CO-luminous early-type galaxies,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 421, no. 2, pp. 1298–1314, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. T. A. Davis, K. Rowlands, J. R. Allison et al., “Molecular and atomic gas in dust lane early-type galaxies – I. Low star formation efficiencies in minor merger remnants,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 449, no. 4, pp. 3503–3516, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. M. Schmidt, “The Rate of Star Formation,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 129, p. 243, 1959. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. R. C. Kennicutt Jr., “Star formation in galaxies along the hubble sequence,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 36, pp. 189–231, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. R. C. Kennicutt Jr., “The global schmidt law in star-forming galaxies,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 498, p. 541, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. F. Bigiel, A. Leroy, F. Walter et al., “The star formation law in nearby galaxies on SUB-KPC scales,” Astronomical Journal, vol. 136, no. 6, pp. 2846–2871, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. Bigiel, A. K. Leroy, F. Walter et al., “A Constant Molecular Gas Depletion Time in Nearby Disk Galaxies,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 730, p. L13, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. A. K. Leroy et al., “Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Nearby Disk Galaxies,” The Astronomical Journal, vol. 146, p. 19, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  17. M. Tsai, C.-Y. Hwang, S. Matsushita, A. J. Baker, and D. Espada, “Interferometric CO(32) observations toward the central region of NGC1068,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 746, no. 2, article no. 129, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. C. Kennicutt and N. J. Evans, “Star Formation in the Milky Way and Nearby Galaxies,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 50, pp. 531–608, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. C. F. McKee and E. C. Ostriker, “Theory of star formation,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 45, pp. 565–687, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. F. P. Israel, “Centaurus A - NGC 5128,” The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review, vol. 8, pp. 237–278, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  21. N. Neumayer, M. Cappellari, J. Reunanen et al., “The central parsecs of centaurus A: High-excitation gas, a molecular disk, and the mass of the black hole,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 671, no. 2, pp. 1329–1344, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. I. D. Karachentsev, “The local group and other neighboring galaxy groups,” Astronomical Journal, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 178–188, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. L. H. Harris, M. Rejkuba, and W. E. Harris, “The distance to NGC 5128 (Centaurus A),” Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 457–462, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Rejkuba, W. E. Harris, L. Greggio, and G. L. H. Harris, “How old are the stars in the halo of NGC 5128 (Centaurus A)?” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 526, p. A123, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. J. Ott, M. McCoy, and D. Meier, “IAU Symposium,” in IAU Symposium, T. Wong and J. Ott, Eds., vol. 292, pp. 251–251, 2013.
  26. J. E. Barnes, “Formation of gas discs in merging galaxies,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 333, no. 3, pp. 481–494, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. R. Auld, M. W. L. Smith, G. Bendo et al., “Herschel observations of Cen A: stellar heating of two extragalactic dust clouds,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 420, no. 3, pp. 1882–1896, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. T. G. Phillips, B. N. Ellison, J. B. Keene et al., “CO emission from Centaurus A,” Astrophysical Journal, Part 2, vol. 322, p. L73, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. A. Eckart, M. Cameron, H. Rothermel et al., “Observations of CO isotopic emission and the far-infrared continuum of centaurus A,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 363, no. 2, pp. 451–463, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Eckart, M. Cameron, R. Genzel et al., “Molecular absorption lines toward the nucleus of Centaurus A,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 365, no. 2, pp. 522–531, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. F. P. Israel, E. F. van Dishoeck, F. Baas, J. Koornneef, J. H. Black, and T. de Graauw, “H2 emission and CO absorption in Centaurus A - evidence for a circumnuclear molecular disk,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 227, p. 342, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  32. F. P. Israel, E. F. van Dishoeck, F. Baas, T. de Graauw, and T. G. Phillips, “CO J = 1-0, 2-1 and 3-2 absorption and emission toward the nucleus of centaurus A(asterisk) - probing the circumnuclear disk,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 245, p. L13, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  33. A. C. Quillen, P. T. de Zeeuw, E. S. Phinney, and T. G. Phillips, “The kinematics of the molecular gas in Centaurus A,” Astrophysical Journal, Part 1, vol. 391, p. 121, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. G. Rydbeck, T. Wiklind, M. Cameron et al., “High resolution (C-12)O(2-1) observations of the molecular gas in centaurus A,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 270, p. L13, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  35. V. Charmandaris, F. Combes, and J. M. van der Hulst, “First detection of molecular gas in the shells of CenA,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 356, p. L1, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  36. J. Ott, D. S. Meier, M. McCoy et al., “Discovery of nuclear water maser emission in Centaurus A,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 771, p. L41, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. K. Ebneter and B. Balick, “Centaurus A,” Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, vol. 95, p. 675, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. J. Bland, k. Taylor, and P. D. Atherton, “The structure and kinematics of the ionized gas within NGC 5128 (Cen A) – I. TAURUS observations,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 228, no. 3, pp. 595–621, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. J. S. Young, Star Forming Regions, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. A. K. Leroy, F. Walter, F. Bigiel et al., “Heracles: the hera co line extragalactic survey,” The Astronomical Journal, vol. 137, p. 4670, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. R. Morganti, T. Oosterloo, J. B. Raymond Oonk, F. Santoro, and C. Tadhunter, “The missing link: tracing molecular gas in the outer filament of Centaurus A,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 592, p. L9, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. D. Espada, S. Matsushita, A. Pecket et al., “Disentangling the circumnuclear environs of centaurus A. I. High-resolution molecular gas imaging,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 695, p. 116, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. J. H. Azeez, C.-Y. Hwang, Z. Z. Abidin, and Z. A. Ibrahim, “Kennicutt-Schmidt law in the central region of NGC 4321 as seen by ALMA,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, p. 26896, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. Q. Salomé, P. Salomé, F. Combes, and S. Hamer, “Atomic-to-molecular gas phase transition triggered by the radio jet in Centaurus A,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 595, p. A65, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. G. Helou, “The IRAS colors of normal galaxies,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 311, pp. L33–L36, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  46. G. J. Bendo, F. Galliano, and S. C. Madden, “MIPS 24-160 μm photometry for the Herschel-SPIRE local galaxies guaranteed time programs,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 423, no. 1, pp. 197–212, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. H. Wu, C. Cao, C.-N. A. Hao et al., “PAH and MID-infrared luminosities as measures of star formation rate in spitzer first look survey galaxies,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 632, no. 2, pp. L79–L82, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. D. Leisawitz, F. N. Bash, and P. Thaddeus, “A CO survey of regions around 34 open clusters,” Astrophysical Journal: Supplement Series, vol. 70, pp. 731–812, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. D. Calzetti, G. Liu, and J. Koda, “Star formation laws: The effects of gas cloud sampling,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 752, no. 2, article 98, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Rahmani, S. Lianou, and P. Barmby, “Star formation laws in the Andromeda galaxy: gas, stars, metals and the surface density of star formation,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 456, no. 4, pp. 4128–4144, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. L. Blitz and E. Rosolowsky, “The role of pressure in GMC formation II: The H2-pressure relation,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 650, no. 2 I, pp. 933–944, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Q. Salomé, P. Salomé, F. Combes, S. Hamer, and I. Heywood, “Star formation efficiency along the radio jet in Centaurus A,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 586, p. A45, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. T. A. Davis, L. M. Young, A. F. Crocker et al., “The ATLAS3D Project – XXVIII. Dynamically driven star formation suppression in early-type galaxies,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 444, no. 4, pp. 3427–3445, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. M. Martig et al., “The ATLAS3D project - XXII. Low-efficiency star formation in early-type galaxies: hydrodynamic models and observations,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 432, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  55. R. C. Kennicutt Jr., “The star formation law in galactic disks,” Astrophysical Journal, Part 1, vol. 344, pp. 685–703, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. A. A. Stark and J. Brand, “Kinematics of molecular clouds. II - New data on nearby giant molecular clouds,” Astrophysical Journal, Part 1, vol. 339, pp. 763–771, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. C. D. Wilson and N. Z. Scoville, “The properties of individual giant molecular clouds in M33,” Astrophysical Journal, Part 1, vol. 363, pp. 435–450, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. F. Combes and J.-F. Becquaert, “Perspectives for detecting cold H2 in outer galactic disks,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 327, p. 453, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  59. W. Walsh, R. Beck, G. Thuma, A. Weiss, R. Wielebinski, and M. Dumke, “Molecular gas in NGC 6946,” Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 388, no. 1, pp. 7–28, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. D. Wilson, B. E. Warren, J. Irwin et al., “The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey – IV. Velocity dispersions in the molecular interstellar medium in spiral galaxies,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 410, no. 3, pp. 1409–1422, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  61. M. R. Krumholz and A. Dekel, “Survival of star-forming giant clumps in high-redshift galaxies,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 406, no. 1, pp. 112–120, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. A. M. Swinbank, I. Smail, D. Sobral, T. Theuns, P. N. Best, and J. E. Geach, “The properties of the star-forming interstellar medium at z = 0.8–2.2 from HiZELS: star formation and clump scaling laws in gas-rich, turbulent disks,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 760, no. 2, article 130, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus