Abstract and Applied Analysis

VolumeΒ 2008Β (2008), Article IDΒ 196498, 12 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2008/196498

## Compact Weighted Composition Operators and Multiplication Operators between Hardy Spaces

^{1}Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science Division II, Tokyo University of Science, 4-6-1 Higashicho, Hitachi, Ibaraki 317-0061, Japan^{2}Department of Mathematics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China

Received 27 August 2007; Accepted 10 February 2008

Academic Editor: StephenΒ Clark

Copyright Β© 2008 Sei-Ichiro Ueki and Luo Luo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

We estimate the essential norm of a compact weighted composition operator acting between different Hardy spaces of the unit ball in . Also we will discuss a compact multiplication operator between Hardy spaces.

#### 1. Introduction

Let be a fixed
integer.
Let denote the unit
ball of and
let denote the
space of all holomorphic functions in . For each , the *Hardy spaceββ * is defined
bywhere is the normalized Lebesgue measure on the boundary of .

For a given holomorphic self-map of and holomorphic
function in , *the weighted composition operator * is defined by . In particular, if is the constant
function , then becomes the *composition
operator *. In the special case that is the identity
mapping of , is called *the
multiplication operator* and is denoted by .

Let and be Banach
spaces. For a bounded linear operator , the *essential norm * is defined to
be the distance from to the set of
the compact operators , namely, where denotes the
usual operator norm. Clearly, is compact if
and only if . Thus, the essential norm is closely related to the
compactness problem of concrete operators. Many mathematicians have studied the
essential norm of various concrete operators. For these studies about
composition operators on Hardy spaces of the unit disc, refer to [1β4]. In this paper, our objects are weighted composition
operators between Hardy spaces of the unit ball . Several authors have also studied weighted
composition operators on various analytic function spaces. For more information
about weighted composition operators, refer to [5β10].

Recently, Contreras and HernΓ‘ndez-DΓaz [11, 12] have characterized the compactness of from into in terms of the pull-back measure. Here, denotes the open unit disc in the complex plane. But they have not given the estimate for the essential norm of . The essential norm of has been studied by ukoviΔ and Zhao [13, 14]. In the higher-dimensional case, Ueki [15] characterized the boundedness and compactness of , in terms of the pull-back measure and the integral operator. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the essential norm of . The following theorem is our main result.

Main 1 Theorem. *Let *. * If **is a bounded
weighted composition operator from **into **, then**where is the
pull-back measure induced by and , is the Carleson
set of , and the notation means that the
ratios of two terms are bounded below and above by constants dependent upon the
dimension and other
parameters.*

The one variable case of the first estimate for in above theorem may be found in the work [14] by ukoviΔ and Zhao. In the case and , Choe [1] and Luo [16] showed that the essential norm is comparable to the value .

We give the proof of main theorem in Section 3. The ideas of our proofs are based on the method which Choe or Luo used in their papers. In Section 4, we have a discussion on the compact multiplication operator between different Hardy spaces.

Throughout the paper, the symbol denotes a positive constant, possibly different at each occurrence, but always independent of the function and other parameters or .

#### 2. Carleson-type Measures

For each , we can define a finite positive Borel measure on bywhere denotes the *radial
limit map* of the mapping considered as a
map of . A change-of-variable
formula from measure theory shows thatfor each nonnegative measurable
function on . This type of pull-back measure played an important
role in past studies of composition operators on Hardy spaces of .

For each and , letIt is well known that is comparable to ([17, page 67]).

The proof of the following lemma is essentially the same as that of Power's theorem in [18].

Lemma 2.1. *Let . Suppose that is a positive
Borel measure on and that there
exists a constant such
that **Then there exists a constant such
that *

*Proof. *Fix and . By the same argument as in the proof of theorem in
[18, pages 14-15], it
follows from (2.4) that there exists a constant such
thatwhere is *the
admissible maximal function* of which is
defined byfor . By (2.6), we haveSince , it follows from [17, Theorem 5.6.5] thatBy (2.8) and (2.9), we
haveThis completes the proof.

Lemma 2.2. *Let . Suppose that is a positive
Borel measure on such
that **for some constant . *

(a)* If , then there exist a and a constant ( is the product of and a constant
depending only on the dimension ) such that and .*(b)* If , then for all Borel
sets of .*

*Proof. *Part (a) is completely analogous to
[19, page 238, Lemma 1.3]. So we only prove part (b). Combining with (2.11), we
havefor all and . Hence we see that *the maximal function * of the positive
measure satisfies for all . By [17, page 70, Theorem 5.2.7], we obtain for some . By (2.12), we havefor all and . Letting , we see that a.e. on , and so . This completes the proof of part (b).

Combining Lemma 2.1 with Lemma 2.2 and using the same argument as in [19, page 239], we obtain the following lemma.

Lemma 2.3. *Let . Suppose that is a positive
Borel measure on such
that **for some constant . Then, there exists a constant such that **for all . Here, the notation denotes the
function defined on by in and a.e. on .*

*Remark 2.4. *In Lemma 2.3 (or in Lemma 2.1), we
see that the constant of (2.15) (or
(2.5)) can be chosen to be the product of and a positive
constant depending only on , and the dimension .

In order to prove the main theorem, we need some results. These are the extensions of [19, Corollary 1.4 and Lemma 1.6] to the case of weighted composition operators .

Proposition 2.5. *Let . Suppose that is a
holomorphic map and such that is bounded.
Then cannot carry a
set of positive -measure
in into a set of -measure in .*

*Proof. *Suppose
that and with and . Put . As in the case of composition operators, it is well
known that the boundedness of impliesfor some positive constant (see [15]). By Lemma 2.2, we see that (if ) or is absolutely
continuous with respect to (if ). Thus we
haveThat is, a.e. on . Hence [17, page 83, Theorem 5.5.9]
gives that in . This contradicts .

Lemma 2.6. *Let and . Suppose that is a
holomorphic map and such that is bounded.
Then a.e. on . Here the notation is used as in
Lemma 2.3.*

*Proof. *
Since cannot carry a
set of positive measure in into a set of
measure in (by Proposition
2.5) and since the radial limit of , and exist on a set
of full measure in , we have a.e. on .

On the other hand, since is in the ball
algebra and as in , the boundedness of shows
thatThis implies that a.e. on .

#### 3. Weighted Composition Operators between Hardy Spaces

Theorem 3.1. *Let . If is a bounded
weighted composition operator from into , then *

*Proof of the lower estimates. * For each , we define the function on byThen the functions belong to the ball algebra and form a
bounded sequence of . Take a compact operator arbitrarily.
Since the bounded sequence converges to uniformly on
compact subsets of as , we have as . Thus we obtainBy the definition of , we also see thatCombining this with (3.3), we
getSince this holds for every
compact operator , it follows that

Furthermore, we put for each and in the
definition of . Since we see that for all , we haveLetting , we getCombining this with (3.6), we
obtaincompleting the proof of the
lower estimates.

To prove the upper estimates, we need some technical results about the polynomial approximation of . Recall that a holomorphic function in has the homogeneous expansionwhere is a multi-index, , and . For the homogeneous expansion of and any integer , letand , where is the identity operator.

Proposition 3.2. *Suppose that is a Banach
space of holomorphic functions in with the
property that the polynomials are dense in . Then as if and only if .*

*Proof. *We see
that [20, Proposition 1] also holds if we replace the unit disc with the unit ball. So we omit the
proof of this proposition.

Proposition 3.3. *If , then as for each .*

*Proof. *For each and , the slice function of is in the disc
algebra . Here, denotes the
dilated function of , that is . Hence [20, Corollary 3 and Proposition 1] implies that there is
a positive constant such
thatfor every integer . Since , integration by slices (see [17, page 15,
Proposition 1.4.7.]) showsthat is, for every integer . By Proposition 3.2, we see as . This completes the proof of the proposition.

Corollary 3.4. *If , then converges to pointwise in as . Moreover, .*

*Proof. *Since , Proposition 3.3 shows that as . Furthermore, the principle of uniform boundedness
implies that .

Lemma 3.5. *Let . For each and , *

*Proof. *Let be the
reproducing kernel for and
let be the
Cauchy-SzegΓΆ projection. Then, the orthogonality of monomials implies
thatHΓΆlder's inequality and the
expansion of giveThis completes the proof.

The following lemma is well known in the case of functional Hilbert spaces (cf. [4, 21]). As in the proof of [21, Lemma 3.16], an elementary argument verifies Lemma 3.6.

Lemma 3.6. *Let . If is bounded from into , then *

Let us prove the upper estimates for the essential norm of .

*Proof of the upper estimates. * For
the sake of convenience, we set

By the notation
(3.18), for given , we can choose an such
thatfor with . For each and , we put . Since the function satisfies for all , the inequality (3.21) implies thatfor all and all .

By the notation (3.19), we can also choose a , so thatfor all . Let and be the
restrictions of to and , respectively. We claim that also satisfies
the Carleson measure conditionfor all and . By (3.22) or
(3.23), these conditions are true for all . Hence, we assume that . For a finite cover , where of the set , the covering property implies that there exists a
disjoint subcollection of so
thatFurthermore, we obtain . By the notation (3.20),
we havewhere the constant depends only on , and the dimension .

Now, we take a function with . By Lemma 2.6, we havefor all integers . Condition (3.24) and
Lemma 2.3 implies
thatOn the other hand,
by Lemma 3.5,
we haveThe boundedness of implies that and the
convergence of the series implies
thatSo we obtainCombining
(3.27), (3.28), and
(3.31) with Lemma 3.6, we haveSince Corollary 3.4 implies that , and was arbitrary,
we conclude thatwhich were to be proved.

Corollary 3.7 (see [15]). * Suppose that . For the bounded weighted composition operator , the following conditions are equivalent: *

(a)* is compact;*(b)* and satisfy*(c)* and satisfy*

#### 4. Multiplication Operators between Hardy Spaces

In this section, we consider the compact multiplication operator between Hardy spaces. As a consequence of Theorem 3.1, we obtain the following results.

Corollary 4.1. *Suppose that . For the bounded multiplication operator , the following inequality holds: **Furthermore, is compact if
and only if *

By using Corollary 4.1, we can completely characterize the compactness of a multiplication operator from into .

Theorem 4.2. *Suppose that . Then is compact if
and only if in .*

*Proof. *If , then is compact.
Thus, we only prove that the compactness of implies . The boundedness of implies that . Hence, the Poisson representation for gives
thatwhere is the Poisson
kernel. HΓΆlder's inequality shows thatwhere . By the assumption , we see thatand so we haveInequality (4.4) and Corollary 4.1 give that . Since , this implies that has a -limit on a set of
positive -measure
in . Hence [17, page 83, Theorem 5.5.9] shows that . This completes the proof.

#### Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank the referee for the careful reading of the first version of this paper and for the several suggestions made for improvement.

#### References

- B. R. Choe, βThe essential norms of composition operators,β
*Glasgow Mathematical Journal*, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 143β155, 1992. View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - P. Gorkin and B. D. MacCluer, βEssential norms of composition operators,β
*Integral Equations and Operator Theory*, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 27β40, 2004. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - P. Poggi-Corradini, βThe essential norm of composition operators revisited,β in
*Studies on Composition Operators*, vol. 213 of*Contemporary Mathematics*, pp. 167β173, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - J. H. Shapiro, βThe essential norm of a composition operator,β
*Annals of Mathematics*, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 375β404, 1987. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - S. Li and S. Stević, βWeighted composition operators between ${H}^{\infty}$ and $\alpha $-Bloch space in the unit ball,β to appear in
*Taiwanese Journal of Mathematics*. View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - S. Li and S. Stević, βWeighted composition operators from ${H}^{\infty}$ to the Bloch space
on the polydisc,β
*Abstract and Applied Analysis*, vol. 2007, Article ID 48478, 13 pages pages, 2007. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - G. Mirzakarimi and K. Seddighi, βWeighted composition operators on Bergman and Dirichlet spaces,β
*Georgian Mathematical Journal*, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 373β383, 1997. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - S. Ohno, βWeighted composition operators between ${H}^{\infty}$ and the Bloch space,β
*Taiwanese Journal of Mathematics*, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 555β563, 2001. View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - S. Ohno, K. Stroethoff, and R. Zhao, βWeighted composition operators between Bloch-type spaces,β
*The Rocky Mountain Journal of Mathematics*, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 191β215, 2003. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - S. Ohno and R. Zhao, βWeighted composition operators on the Bloch space,β
*Bulletin of the Australian Mathematical Society*, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 177β185, 2001. View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - M. D. Contreras and A. G. Hernández-Díaz, βWeighted composition operators on Hardy spaces,β
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 263, no. 1, pp. 224β233, 2001. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - M. D. Contreras and A. G. Hernández-Díaz, βWeighted composition operators between different Hardy spaces,β
*Integral Equations and Operator Theory*, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 165β188, 2003. View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - ̆Z. ̆Cŭcković and R. Zhao, βWeighted composition operators on the Bergman space,β
*Journal of the London Mathematical Society*, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 499β511, 2004. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - ̆Z. ̆Cŭcković and R. Zhao, βWeighted composition operators between different weighted Bergman spaces and different Hardy spaces,β
*Illinois Journal of Mathematics*, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 479β498, 2007. View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - S. Ueki, βWeighted composition operators between weighted Bergman spaces in the unit ball of ${\u2102}^{n}$,β
*Nihonkai Mathematical Journal*, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 31β48, 2005. View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - L. Luo, βThe essential norm of a composition operator on Hardy space of the unit ball,β
*Chinese Annals of Mathematics (Series A, Chinese)*, vol. 28A, no. 6, pp. 805β810, 2007, preprint. View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - W. Rudin,
*Function Theory in the Unit Ball of ℂ*, vol. 241 of^{n}*Fundamental Principles of Mathematical Science*, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1980. View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - S. C. Power, βHörmander's Carleson theorem for the ball,β
*Glasgow Mathematical Journal*, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 13β17, 1985. View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - B. D. MacCluer, βCompact composition operators on ${h}^{p}({b}_{n})$,β
*The Michigan Mathematical Journal*, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 237β248, 1985. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - K. H. Zhu, βDuality of Bloch spaces and norm convergence of Taylor series,β
*The Michigan Mathematical Journal*, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 89β101, 1991. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - C. C. Cowen and B. D. MacCluer,
*Composition Operators on Spaces of Analytic Functions*, Studies in Advanced Mathematics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 1995. View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet