Research Article | Open Access

# Korovkin Second Theorem via -Statistical -Summability

**Academic Editor:**Feyzi BaÅar

#### Abstract

Korovkin type approximation theorems are useful tools to check whether a given sequence of positive linear operators on of all continuous functions on the real interval is an approximation process. That is, these theorems exhibit a variety of test functions which assure that the approximation property holds on the whole space if it holds for them. Such a property was discovered by Korovkin in 1953 for the functions 1, , and in the space as well as for the functions 1, cos, and sin in the space of all continuous 2-periodic functions on the real line. In this paper, we use the notion of -statistical -summability to prove the Korovkin second approximation theorem. We also study the rate of -statistical -summability of a sequence of positive linear operators defined from into .

#### 1. Introduction and Preliminaries

Let be the set of all natural numbers, , and . Then the *natural density* of is defined by
if the limit exists, where the vertical bars indicate the number of elements in the enclosed set, is the CesĆ ro matrix of order , and denotes the characteristic sequence of given by

A sequence is said to be *statistically convergent* to if for every , the set has natural density zero (cf. Fast [1]); that is, for each ,
In this case, we write By the symbol we denote the set of all statistically convergent sequences. Statistical convergence of double sequences is studied in [2, 3].

A matrix is called *regular* if it transforms a convergent sequence into a convergent sequence leaving the limit invariant. The well-known necessary and sufficient conditions (Silverman-Toeplitz) for to be regular are(i);
(ii), for each ;(iii).

Freedmann and Sember [4] generalized the natural density by replacing with an arbitrary nonnegative regular matrix . A subset of has -density if exists. Connor [5] and Kolk [6] extended the idea of statistical convergence to -statistical convergence by using the notion of -density.

A sequence is said to be -*statistically convergent* to if for every . In this case we write . By the symbol we denote the set of all -statistically convergent sequences.

In [7], Edely and Mursaleen generalized these statistical summability methods by defining the statistical -summability and studied its relationship with -statistical convergence.

Let be a nonnegative regular matrix. A sequence is said to be statistically *-*summable to if for every , ; that is,
where . Thus is statistically -summable to if and only if is statistically convergent to . In this case we write . By we denote the set of all statistically -summable sequences. A more general case of statistically -summability is discussed in [8].

Quite recently, Edely [9] defined the concept of -statistical -summability for nonnegative regular matrices and which generalizes all the variants and generalizations of statistical convergence, for example, lacunary statistical convergence [10], -statistical convergence [11], -statistical convergence [6], statistical -summability [7], statistical -summability [12], statistical -summability [13], statistical -summability [14], and so forth.

Let and be two nonnegative regular matrices. A sequence of real numbers is said to be -statistically*-*summable to if for every , the set has -density zero, thus
where In this case we denote by . The set of all -statistically -summable sequences will be denoted by .

*Remark 1. *(1) If (unit matrix), then is reduced to the set of -statistically convergent sequences which can be further reduced to lacunary statistical convergence and -statistical convergence for particular choice of the matrix .

(2) If matrix, then is reduced to the set of statistically -summable sequences.

(3) If matrix, then is reduced to the set of statistically -summable sequences.

(4) If matrix and are defined by
then is reduced to the set of statistically -summable sequences, where is a sequence of nonnegative numbers, such that and

(5) If matrix and are defined by
where , then is reduced to the set of statistically -summable sequences.

(6) If a sequence is convergent, then it is -statistically -summable, since converges and has -density zero, but not conversely.

(7) The spaces ,,, and are not comparable, even if .

(8) If a sequence is -summable, then it is -statistically -summable.

(9) If a sequence is bounded and -statistically convergent, then it is -summable and hence statistically -summable ([7], see Theorem 2.1) and -statistically -summable but not conversely.

*Example 2. *(1) Let us define , , and by
Then

Here , , , and , but is -statistically -summable to , since . On the other hand we can see that is -summable and hence is -statistically -summable, -statistically -summable, -statistically convergent, and statistically -summable.

Let denote the linear space of all real-valued functions defined on . Let be the space of all functions continuous on . We know that is a Banach space with norm

We denote by the space of all -periodic functions which is a Banach space with

The classical Korovkin first and second theorems statewhatfollows [15, 16]:

Theorem I. *Let be a sequence of positive linear operators from into . Then , for all if and only if āā, for , where ,, and .*

Theorem II. * Let be a sequence of positive linear operators from into . Then , āfor all if and only if āā, āfor , where ,, and .*

We write for , and we say that is a positive operator if for all .

The following result was studied by Duman [17] which is -statistical analogue of Theorem II.

Theorem A. * Let be a nonnegative regular matrix, and let be a sequence of positive linear operators from into . Then for all **
if and only if
*

Recently, KarakuÅ and Demirci [18] proved Theorem II for statistical -summability.

Theorem B. * Let be a nonnegative regular matrix, and let be a sequence of positive linear operators from into . Then for all **
if and only if
*

Several mathematicians have worked on extending or generalizing the Korovkin's theorems in many ways and to several settings, including function spaces, abstract Banach lattices, Banach algebras, and Banach spaces. This theory is very useful in real analysis, functional analysis, harmonic analysis, measure theory, probability theory, summability theory, and partial differential equations. But the foremost applications are concerned with constructive approximation theory which uses it as a valuable tool. Even today, the development of Korovkin-type approximation theory is far frombeingcomplete. Note that the first and the second theorems of Korovkin are actually equivalent to the algebraic and the trigonometric version, respectively, of the classical Weierstrass approximation theorem [19]. Recently, such type of approximation theorems has been proved by many authors by using the concept of statistical convergence and its variants, for example, [20ā28]. Further Korovkin type approximation theorems for functions of two variables are proved in [29ā32]. In [29, 33] authors have used the concept of almost convergence. In this paper, we prove Korovkin second theorem by applying the notion of -statistical -summability. We give here an example to justify that our result is stronger than Theorems II, A, and B. We also study the rate of -statistical -summability of a sequence of positive linear operators defined from into .

#### 2. Main Result

Now, we prove Theorem II for -statistically -summability.

Theorem 3. * Let and be nonnegative regular matrices, and let be a sequence of positive linear operators from into . Then for all **
if and only if
*

*Proof. *Since each of 1, , and belongs to , conditions (19) follow immediately from (18). Let the conditions (19) hold and . Let ābe a closed subinterval of length of āā. Fix . By the continuity of at , it follows that for given there is a number , such that for all
whenever . Since is bounded, it follows that
for all . For all , it is well known that
where . Since the function is -periodic, the inequality (22) holds for .

Now, operating to this inequality, we obtain
Now, taking , we get
where . Now replace by and then by in (24) on both sides. For a given choose , such that . Define the following sets
Then , and so . Therefore, using conditions (19) we get (18).

This completes the proof of the theorem.

#### 3. Rate of -Statistical -Summability

In this section, we study the rate of -statistical -summability of a sequence of positive linear operators defined from into .

*Definition 4. *Let and be two nonnegative regular matrices. Let be a positive nonincreasing sequence. We say that the sequence is -statistically -summable to the number with the rate if for every ,
where and as described above. In this case, we write .

As usual we have the following auxiliary result whose proof is standard.

Lemma 5. *Let and be two positive nonincreasing sequences. Let and be two sequences, such that and . Then**, for any scalar ,**,
**,
** where .*

Now, we recall the notion of modulus of continuity. The modulus of continuity of , denoted by , is defined by

It is well known that

Then prove the following result.

Theorem 6. * Let be a sequence of positive linear operators from into . Suppose that*(i)*,
*(ii)*, where andāā.**Then for all , we have
**where *.

* Proof. *Let and . Using (28), we have
Put . Hence we get
where . Hence
Now, using Definition 4 and Conditions (i) and (ii), we get the desired result.

This completes the proof of the theorem.

#### 4. Example and Concluding Remark

In the following we construct an example of a sequence of positive linear operators satisfying the conditions of Theorem 3 but does not satisfy the conditions of Theorems II, A, and B.

For any , denote by the th partial sum of the Fourier series of ; that is,

For any , write

A standard calculation gives that for every
where
The sequence is a positive kernel which is called the *FejĆ©r kernel, *and the corresponding operators ,, are called the *FejĆ©r convolution operators. *We have

Note that the Theorems II, A, and B hold for the sequence . In fact, we have for every ,

Let , and be defined as in Example 2. Let be defined by Then is not statistically convergent, not -statistically convergent, and not statistically -summable, but it is -statistically summable to . Since is -statistically -summable to , it is easy to see that the operator satisfies the conditions (19), and hence Theorem 3 holds. But on the other hand, Theorems II, A, and B do not hold for our operator defined by (39), since (and so ) is not statistically convergent, not -statistically convergent, and not statistically -summable.

Hence our Theorem 3 is stronger than all the above three theorems.

#### Acknowledgments

This joint work was done when the first author visited University Putra Malaysia as a visiting scientist during August 27āSeptember 25, 2012. The author is very grateful to the administration of UPM for providing him local hospitalities.

#### References

- H. Fast, āSur la convergence statistique,ā
*Colloquium Mathematicum*, vol. 2, pp. 241ā244, 1951. View at: Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - Mursaleen and O. H. H. Edely, āStatistical convergence of double sequences,ā
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 288, no. 1, pp. 223ā231, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - S. A. Mohiuddine, A. Alotaibi, and M. Mursaleen, āStatistical convergence of double sequences in locally solid Riesz spaces,ā
*Abstract and Applied Analysis*, vol. 2012, Article ID 719729, 9 pages, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar - A. R. Freedman and J. J. Sember, āDensities and summability,ā
*Pacific Journal of Mathematics*, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 293ā305, 1981. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - J. Connor, āOn strong matrix summability with respect to a modulus and statistical convergence,ā
*Canadian Mathematical Bulletin. Bulletin Canadien de Mathématiques*, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 194ā198, 1989. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - E. Kolk, āMatrix summability of statistically convergent sequences,ā
*Analysis*, vol. 13, no. 1-2, pp. 77ā83, 1993. View at: Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - O. H. H. Edely and M. Mursaleen, āOn statistical $A$-summability,ā
*Mathematical and Computer Modelling*, vol. 49, no. 3-4, pp. 672ā680, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | MathSciNet - M. Mursaleen and O. H. H. Edely, āGeneralized statistical convergence,ā
*Information Sciences*, vol. 162, no. 3-4, pp. 287ā294, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - O. H. H. Edely, ā$B$-statistically $A$-summability,ā
*Thai Journal of Mathematics*. In press. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar - J. A. Fridy and C. Orhan, āLacunary statistical convergence,ā
*Pacific Journal of Mathematics*, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 43ā51, 1993. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - Mursaleen, ā$\lambda $-statistical convergence,ā
*Mathematica Slovaca*, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 111ā115, 2000. View at: Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - F. Móricz, āTauberian conditions, under which statistical convergence follows from statistical summability $(C,1)$,ā
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 275, no. 1, pp. 277ā287, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - F. Móricz, āTheorems relating to statistical harmonic summability and ordinary convergence of slowly decreasing or oscillating sequences,ā
*Analysis*, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 127ā145, 2004. View at: Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - F. Móricz and C. Orhan, āTauberian conditions under which statistical convergence follows from statistical summability by weighted means,ā
*Studia Scientiarum Mathematicarum Hungarica*, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 391ā403, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - P. P. Korovkin, āOn convergence of linear positive operators in the space of continuous functions,ā
*Doklady Akademii Nauk*, vol. 90, pp. 961ā964, 1953. View at: Google Scholar | MathSciNet - P. P. Korovkin,
*Linear Operators and Approximation Theory*, Hindustan, Delhi, India, 1960. View at: MathSciNet - O. Duman, āStatistical approximation for periodic functions,ā
*Demonstratio Mathematica*, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 873ā878, 2003. View at: Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - S. Karakuş and K. Demirci, āApproximation for periodic functions via statistical
*A*-summability,ā*Acta Mathematica Universitatis Comenianae*, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 159ā169, 2012. View at: Google Scholar - F. Altomare, āKorovkin-type theorems and approximation by positive linear operators,ā
*Surveys in Approximation Theory*, vol. 5, pp. 92ā164, 2010. View at: Google Scholar | MathSciNet - K. Demirci and F. Dirik, āApproximation for periodic functions via statistical $\sigma $-convergence,ā
*Mathematical Communications*, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 77ā84, 2011. View at: Google Scholar | MathSciNet - O. H. H. Edely, S. A. Mohiuddine, and A. K. Noman, āKorovkin type approximation theorems obtained through generalized statistical convergence,ā
*Applied Mathematics Letters*, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1382ā1387, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - S. A. Mohiuddine, A. Alotaibi, and M. Mursaleen, āStatistical summability $(C,1)$ and a Korovkin type approximation theorem,ā
*Journal of Inequalities and Applications*, vol. 2012, 172 pages, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | MathSciNet - M. Mursaleen and R. Ahmad, āKorovkin type approximation theorem through statistical lacunary summability,ā
*Iranian Journal of Science and Technology-Science*. In press. View at: Google Scholar - M. Mursaleen and A. Alotaibi, āStatistical summability and approximation by de la Vallée-Poussin mean,ā
*Erratum: Applied Mathematics Letters*, vol. 25, p. 665, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - M. Mursaleen and A. Alotaibi, āStatistical lacunary summability and a Korovkin type approximation theorem,ā
*Annali dell'Universitá di Ferrara*, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 373ā381, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | MathSciNet - M. Mursaleen, V. Karakaya, M. Ertürk, and F. Gürsoy, āWeighted statistical convergence and its application to Korovkin type approximation theorem,ā
*Applied Mathematics and Computation*, vol. 218, no. 18, pp. 9132ā9137, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | MathSciNet - C. Radu, ā$A$-summability and approximation of continuous periodic functions,ā
*Studia. Universitatis Babeş-Bolyai. Mathematica*, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 155ā161, 2007. View at: Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - H. M. Srivastava, M. Mursaleen, and A. Khan, āGeneralized equi-statistical convergence of positive linear operators and associated approximation theorems,ā
*Mathematical and Computer Modelling*, vol. 55, no. 9-10, pp. 2040ā2051, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | MathSciNet - G. A. Anastassiou, M. Mursaleen, and S. A. Mohiuddine, āSome approximation theorems for functions of two variables through almost convergence of double sequences,ā
*Journal of Computational Analysis and Applications*, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 37ā46, 2011. View at: Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - C. Belen, M. Mursaleen, and M. Yildirim, āStatistical $A$-summability of double sequences and a Korovkin type approximation theorem,ā
*Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society*, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 851ā861, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar - K. Demirci and F. Dirik, āFour-dimensional matrix transformation and rate of $A$-statistical convergence of periodic functions,ā
*Mathematical and Computer Modelling*, vol. 52, no. 9-10, pp. 1858ā1866, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | MathSciNet - M. Mursaleen and A. Alotaibi, āKorovkin type approximation theorem for functions of two variables through statistical $A$-summability,ā
*Advances in Difference Equations*, vol. 2012, 65 pages, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | MathSciNet - S. A. Mohiuddine, āAn application of almost convergence in approximation theorems,ā
*Applied Mathematics Letters*, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1856ā1860, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet

#### Copyright

Copyright © 2013 M. Mursaleen and A. Kiliçman. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.