Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Abstract and Applied Analysis
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 796384, 14 pages
Research Article

A Comparison of Bullwhip Effect under Various Forecasting Techniques in Supply Chains with Two Retailers

College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China

Received 7 October 2013; Accepted 23 October 2013

Academic Editor: Massimiliano Ferrara

Copyright © 2013 Junhai Ma and Xiaogang Ma. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We examine the impact of three forecasting methods on the bullwhip effect in a two-stage supply chain with one supplier and two retailers. A first order mixed autoregressive-moving average model (ARMA(1, 1)) performs the demand forecast and an order-up-to inventory policy characterizes the inventory decision. The bullwhip effect is measured, respectively, under the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE), moving average (MA), and exponential smoothing (ES) forecasting techniques. The effect of parameters on the bullwhip effect under three forecasting methods is analyzed and the bullwhip effect under three forecasting methods is compared. Conclusions indicate that different forecasting methods lead to different bullwhip effects caused by lead time, underlying parameters of the demand process, market competition, and the consistency of demand volatility between two retailers. Moreover, some suggestions are present to help managers to select the forecasting method that yields the lowest bullwhip effect.