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Abstract and Applied Analysis
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 926519, 6 pages
Research Article

Analysis of Similarity/Dissimilarity of DNA Sequences Based on Chaos Game Representation

1School of Mathematics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
2School of Science, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101, China

Received 20 November 2012; Revised 27 January 2013; Accepted 8 February 2013

Academic Editor: Yong Zhang

Copyright © 2013 Wei Deng and Yihui Luan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The Chaos Game is an algorithm that can allow one to produce pictures of fractal structures. Considering that the four bases A, G, C, and T of DNA sequences can be divided into three classes according to their chemical structure, we propose different kinds of CGR-walk sequences. Based on CGR coordinates of random sequences, we introduce some invariants for the DNA primary sequences. As an application, we can make the examination of similarity/dissimilarity among the first exon of β-globin gene of different species. The results indicate that our method is efficient and can get more biological information.