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Abstract and Applied Analysis
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 950926, 11 pages
Research Article

Optimization of Open Boundary Conditions in a 3D Internal Tidal Model with the Adjoint Method around Hawaii

1Laboratory of Physical Oceanography, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
2Laboratory of Coast and Island Development, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China

Received 4 January 2013; Accepted 13 March 2013

Academic Editor: Guanglu Zhou

Copyright © 2013 Anzhou Cao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Based on the theory of inverse problem, the optimization of open boundary conditions (OBCs) in a 3D internal tidal model is investigated with the adjoint method. Fourier coefficients of internal tide on four open boundaries, which are regarded as OBCs, are inverted simultaneously. During the optimization, the steepest descent method is used to minimize cost function. The reasonability and feasibility of the model are tested by twin experiments (TEs). In TE1, OBCs on four open boundaries are successfully inverted by using independent point (IP) strategy, suggesting that IP strategy is useful in parameter estimation. Results of TE2 indicate that the model is effective even by assimilating inaccurate “observations.” Based on conclusions of TEs, the internal tide around Hawaii is simulated by assimilating T/P data in practical experiment. The simulated cochart shows good agreement with that obtained from the Oregon State University tidal model and T/P observations. Careful inspection shows that the major difference between simulated results and OSU model results is short-scale fluctuations superposed on coamplitude lines, which can be treated as the surface manifestation modulated by the internal tide. The computed surface manifestation along T/P tracks is comparable to the estimation in previous work.