Research Article | Open Access

# Fractional Killing-Yano Tensors and Killing Vectors Using the Caputo Derivative in Some One- and Two-Dimensional Curved Space

**Academic Editor:**Xiao-Jun Yang

#### Abstract

The classical free Lagrangian admitting a constant of motion, in one- and two-dimensional space, is generalized using the Caputo derivative of fractional calculus. The corresponding metric is obtained and the fractional Christoffel symbols, Killing vectors, and Killing-Yano tensors are derived. Some exact solutions of these quantities are reported.

#### 1. Introduction

The tool of the fractional calculus started to be successfully applied in many fields of science and engineering (see, e.g., [1–12] and the references therein). Fractals and its connection to local fractional vector calculus represents another interesting field of application (see, e.g., [13, 14] and the references therein). Several definitions of the fractional differentiation and integration exist in the literature. The most commonly used are the Riemann-Liouville and the Caputo derivatives. The Riemann-Liouville derivative of a constant is not zero while Caputo's derivative of a constant is zero. This property makes the Caputo definition more suitable in all problems involving the fractional differential geometry [15, 16]. The Caputo differential operator of fractional calculus is defined as [1–8] where is the Gamma function and . In this work, we consider the case , . For the power function , , the Caputo fractional derivative satisfies The role played by Killing and Killing-Yano tensors for the geodesic motion of the particle and the superparticle in a curved background was a topic subjected to an intense debate during the last decades [17–26]. In [27] a generalization of exterior calculus was presented. Besides, the quadratic Lagrangians are introduced by adding surface terms to a free-particle Lagrangian in [28].

Motivated by the above mentioned results in differential geometry, we discuss in this paper the hidden symmetries corresponding to the fractional Killing vectors and Killing-Yano tensors on curved spaces deeply related to physical systems.

The Caputo partial differential operator of fractional order is defined as Again in this work we consider the case , , and we drop the term in the notation.

#### 2. The Main Results

In the following, we present the Killing vectors and Killing-Yano tensors corresponding to some curved spaces with some physical significance.

##### 2.1. One-Dimensional Case

Consider the one-dimensional free Lagrangian, admitting a constant of motion; that is, momentum [28] The Lagrangian can be rewritten as where . The fractional Lagrangian of order is given by where we consider the Caputo fractional derivative.

We generalize the Christoffel symbols in the fractional case, of order , as where the partial derivatives of order are defined in the fractional case.

We notice that because the metric is constant, all the Christoffel symbols vanish,

###### 2.1.1. Fractional Killing Vectors and Killing-Yano Tensors

The Killing vectors can be calculated from the generalized equations, namely, where is the fractional covariant derivative defined as Because all the Christoffel symbols vanish, it is easy to show that For , a solution of the above equations is , , where is a constant. While for , we have the general solution where , , , , are constants.

The fractional Killing-Yano antisymmetric tensor can be calculated using the condition where is the fractional covariant derivative of the Killing-Yano tensor defined as We find that for all values of , , . A solution is and , where is a constant and for . While for , that is, , we have the general solution where , are constants.

##### 2.2. Two-Dimensional Case

Below we consider the classical free Lagrangian, in two dimensions, admitting a constant of motion; that is, angular momentum [28] The fractional Lagrangian is given by where is given by

The inverse matrix of the metric is

We generalize the Christoffel symbols in the fractional case, of order , as

One can show that for , while

###### 2.2.1. Fractional Killing Vectors

The Killing vectors can be calculated from the generalized equations where is the fractional covariant derivative defined as It is easy to show that

A solution for and can be easily found for any fractional order , that is, , namely, where , , , , are constants. The solution to is not easy to find for . However, for , that is, , the equations simplify because In this case a general solution is obtained as where , are constants.

###### 2.2.2. Fractional Killing-Yano Tensors

The fractional antisymmetric Killing-Yano tensors can be derived using the condition that where is the fractional covariant derivative of the Killing-Yano tensor defined as For the fractional order , it is difficult to find an analytic solution. However, for the order , the Christoffel symbols vanish; we find that for all values of , , . A solution is that and , , are a linear combination of , where , namely, where , , , , , are constants.

#### 3. Conclusion

In this work, we investigate the existence of fractional Killing vectors and Killing-Yano tensors for the geometry induced by fractionalizing the classical free Lagrangian admitting a constant of motion. We discuss the cases of one-dimensional and two-dimensional curved space. We use the Caputo definition of the fractional derivative to calculate the fractional Christoffel symbols and consequently we provide explicit solution to the fractional Killing vectors and Killing-Yano tensors.

#### Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

#### References

- A. A. Kilbas, H. M. Srivastava, and J. J. Trujillo,
*Theory and Applications of Fractional Diffdrential Equations*, vol. 204, Elservier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2006. - V. Lakshmikantham and A. S. Vatsala, “Basic theory of fractional differential equations,”
*Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*, vol. 69, pp. 2677–2682, 2009. View at: Google Scholar | MathSciNet - I. Podlubny,
*Fractional Differential Equations*, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1999. - J. Sabatier, O. P. Agrawal, and J. A. T. Machado,
*Advances in Fractional Calculus: Theoretical Developments and Applications in Physics and Engineering*, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2007. - K. S. Miller and B. Ross,
*An Introduction to the Fractional Calculus and Fractional Differential Equations*, John Wiley & Sons, 1993. View at: MathSciNet - K. B. Oldham and J. Spanier,
*The Fractional Calculus; Theory and Applications of Differentiation and Integration to Arbitrary Order(Mathematics in Science and Engineering, V)*, Academic Press, 1974. - R. Herrmann,
*Fractional Calculus. An Introduction for Physicists*, World Scientific, Singapore, 2011. - S. G. Samko, A. A. Kilbas, and O. I. Marichev,
*Fractional Integral and Derivatives, Theory and Applications*, Gordon and Breach, Yverdon, Switzerland, 1993. - D. Baleanu, K. Diethelm, E. Scalas, and J. J. Trujillo,
*Fractional Calculus Models and Numerical Methods*, World Scientific, Singapore, 2012. - F. Mainardi, “Fractional calculus: some basic problems in continuum and statistical mechanics,” in
*Fractals and Fractional Calculus in Continuum Mechanics*, pp. 291–348, Springer, Vienna, Austria, 1997. View at: Google Scholar | MathSciNet - R. Hilfer,
*Application of Fractional Calculus in Physics*, World Scientific Publishing Company, Singapore, 2000. View at: MathSciNet - O. P. Agrawal, “Formulation of Euler-Lagrange equations for fractional variational problems,”
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 272, no. 1, pp. 368–379, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - X.-J. Yang,
*Advanced Local Fractional Calculus and Its Applications*, World Science, New York, NY, USA, 2012. - Y. Zhao, D. Baleanu, C. Cattani, D. Cheng, and X.-J. Yang, “Maxwell's equations on cantor Sets: a local fractional approach,”
*Advances in High Energy Physics*, vol. 2013, Article ID 686371, 6 pages, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar - D. Baleanu and S. I. Vacaru, “Fedosov quantization of fractional lagrange spaces,”
*International Journal of Theoretical Physics*, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 233–243, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - D. Baleanu and S. I. Vacaru, “Fractional almost Kähler-Lagrange geometry,”
*Nonlinear Dynamics*, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 365–373, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar - M. Visinescu, “Geodesic motion in Taub—NUT spinning space,”
*Classical and Quantum Gravity*, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1867–1879, 1994. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | MathSciNet - G. W. Gibbons, R. H. Rietdijk, and J. W. Van Holten, “SUSY in the sky,”
*Nuclear Physics B*, vol. 404, no. 1-2, pp. 42–64, 1993. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - J. W. van Holten, “Supersymmetry and the geometry of Taub-NUT,”
*Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics*, vol. 342, no. 1–4, pp. 47–52, 1995. View at: Google Scholar | MathSciNet - D. Baleanu and Ö. Defterli, “Killing-Yano tensors and angular momentum,”
*Czechoslovak Journal of Physics*, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 157–165, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - D. Baleanu and S. Başkal, “Dual metrics and nongeneric supersymmetries for a class of siklos space-times,”
*International Journal of Modern Physics A*, vol. 17, no. 26, pp. 3737–3747, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - D. Garfinkle and E. N. Glass, “Killing tensors and symmetries,”
*Classical and Quantum Gravity*, vol. 27, no. 9, Article ID 095004, 2010. View at: Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH - Sh. Tachibana, “On conformal Killing tensor in a Riemannian space,”
*Tohoku Mathematical Journal*, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 56–64, 1969. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - T. Houri and K. Yamamoto, “Killing-Yano symmetry of Kaluza-Klein black holes in five dimensions,”
*Classical and Quantum Gravity*, vol. 30, no. 7, Article ID 075013, 21 pages, 2013. View at: Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - D. Baleanu and A. Karasu, “Lax tensors, killing tensors and geometric duality,”
*Modern Physics Letters A*, vol. 14, no. 37, pp. 2587–2594, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | MathSciNet - D. Baleanu and S. Bakal, “Geometrization of the lax pair tensors,”
*Modern Physics Letters A*, vol. 15, no. 24, pp. 1503–1510, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - K. Cottrill-Shepherd and M. Naber, “Fractional differential forms,”
*Journal of Mathematical Physics*, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 2203–2212, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - Y. Güler, D. Baleanu, and M. Cenk, “Surface terms, angular momentum and Hamilton-Jacobi formalism,”
*Nuovo Cimento della Societa Italiana di Fisica B*, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 293–306, 2003. View at: Google Scholar | MathSciNet

#### Copyright

Copyright © 2014 Ehab Malkawi and D. Baleanu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.