Research Article | Open Access

Yong-Ping Deng, Shan-He Wu, Yu-Ming Chu, Deng He, "The Schur-Convexity of the Generalized Muirhead-Heronian Means", *Abstract and Applied Analysis*, vol. 2014, Article ID 706518, 11 pages, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/706518

# The Schur-Convexity of the Generalized Muirhead-Heronian Means

**Academic Editor:**Giovanni Anello

#### Abstract

We give a unified generalization of the generalized Muirhead means and the generalized Heronian means involving three parameters. The Schur-convexity of the generalized Muirhead-Heronian means is investigated. Our main result implies the sufficient conditions of the Schur-convexity of the generalized Heronian means and the generalized Muirhead means.

#### 1. Introduction

In what follows, we denote the set of real numbers by , the set of nonnegative real numbers by , and the set of positive real numbers by .

Let ; the classical Heronian means is defined by (see [1])

In 1999, Mao [2] gave the definition of dual Heronian means; that is,

In 2001, Janous [3] considered the unified generalization of Heronian means and and presented a weighted generalization of the above-mentioned Heronian-type means, as follows:

Jia and Cao [4] investigated the exponential generalization of Heronian means and they established some related inequalities. The monotonicity and Schur-convexity of the Heronian means were discussed by Li et al. in [5].

Shi et al. [6] discussed the Schur-convexity of a further generalization of the Heronian means given by and they obtained a significant result asserted by Theorem A below.

Theorem A. *For fixed ,*(1)*if , then is Schur-convex for .*(2)*If , then is Schur-concave for .*

As a further investigation of Theorem A, Fu et al. [7] gave the necessary and sufficient condition for the Schur-convexity of the generalized Heronian means , which is stated in the following theorem.

Theorem B. *For fixed , the generalized Heronian means is Schur-convex for if and only if
**Furthermore, is Schur-concave for if and only if
*

*Remark 1. *It is easy to observe that, for , , is Schur-convex and Schur-concave for . In addition, we note that . Thus, the conditions of Schur-convexity of in Theorem B can be rewritten as

The Schur-power-convexity of was investigated by Yang [8].

In 2006, Trif [9] considered the following generalized Muirhead means, defined by
where , , .

Gong et al. [10] investigated the Schur-convexity of generalized Muirhead means and obtained the following results.

Theorem C. *For fixed , the generalized Muirhead means is Schur-convex for if and only if
**Furthermore, is Schur-concave for if and only if
*

*Remark 2. *If we define, for , , the generalized Muirhead means by , we can easily find that is Schur-concave for ; thereby, the conditions of Schur-concave of in Theorem C can be rewritten as

The Schur-geometric-convexity and Schur-harmonic-convexity of the generalized Muirhead means were studied by Xia and Chu in [11, 12].

In this paper we generalize the generalized Muirhead means and the generalized Heronian means in a unified form. For this purpose we define a generalized Muirhead-Heronian means , as follows:
where , .

The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces several definitions and lemmas; Section 3 discusses the Schur-convexity of the generalized Muirhead-Heronian means; Section 4 provides some remarks on the results given in Theorem 9 and it is shown that the sufficient conditions of Schur-convexity of the generalized Heronian means and the generalized Muirhead means can be deduced from Theorem 9 as special cases.

#### 2. Definitions and Lemmas

We introduce and establish several definitions and lemmas, which will be used in the proofs of the main results in Section 3.

*Definition 3 (see [13, page 7]). *For any , , let and denote the components of and in decreasing order, respectively.

The -tuple is said to majorize (or is to be majorized by ), in symbols , if

*Definition 4 (see [13, page 54]). *For any , (), is said to be a Schur-convex function on if on implies and is said to be a Schur-concave function on if and only if is a Schur-convex function.

Lemma 5 (see [13, page 57]). *Let be a symmetric convex set with nonempty interior and a continuous symmetric function on . If is differentiable on , then is the Schur-convex (Schur-concave) function on if and only if
**
holds for all .*

Lemma 6. *Suppose that , , and
**
Suppose also that
**Then for .*

*Proof. *Differentiating with respect to gives

Let , then

Differentiating with respect to yields

In order to prove Lemma 6, we need to consider the two cases below.*Caseâ€‰â€‰1 (**).* In view of , we have for . Hence is decreasing on , by which, together with
we deduce that for . This means that is increasing on . Thus, we have, for ,

This leads to . *Caseâ€‰â€‰2 (**).* By , we have for . Thus is increasing on , by which, together with
we obtain for . It follows that is increasing on . Thus, we have, for ,

This implies that . The proof of Lemma 6 is complete.

Lemma 7. *Suppose that , , and
**
Suppose also that
**Then for .*

*Proof. *Using the differential expressions obtained in Lemma 6, one has

We divide the proof of Lemma 7 into four cases.*Caseâ€‰â€‰1.* If , then

Thus we have, for ,
*Caseâ€‰â€‰2.* If , then

Thus we have, for ,
*Caseâ€‰â€‰3.* If , then

Thus we have, for ,
*Caseâ€‰â€‰4.* If , then

Thus we have, for ,
This completes the proof of Lemma 7.

Lemma 8. *Suppose that , , and
**
Suppose also that
**Then for .*

*Proof. *Based on the differential expressions , , , , , obtained in the proof of Lemma 6, in order to prove Lemma 8, we need to consider the two cases below.*Caseâ€‰â€‰1.* If , then

Hence, we deduce that there exists such that , satisfying for and for .

Further, we conclude that is increasing on and decreasing on ; thereby, we get for .

From we have
this yields
we thus have
where

Note that implies and
we conclude that for .

Hence, from , one has, for ,
*Caseâ€‰â€‰2.* If , then

Thus, we deduce that there exists such that , satisfying for and for .

It follows that is decreasing on and increasing on , therefore, we obtain

From , we have
that is,
we thus have
where

Note that implies and

which yields that for .

Therefore, from , one has, for ,

The proof of Lemma 8 is completed.

#### 3. Main Result

The main result of this paper is given by Theorem 9 below.

Theorem 9. *For fixed , let
**
and let
**The following assertions holds true. *(1)*If , then the generalized Muirhead-Heronian means is Schur-convex for .*(2)*If , then the generalized Muirhead-Heronian means is Schur-concave for .*

*Proof. *Note that the expression is of symmetry between and and without loss of generality we assume that .*Caseâ€‰â€‰1.* If , then . Define

Hence, is Schur-concave for .*Caseâ€‰â€‰2.* If , we have the following known results (see Theorem B and Remark 1 in Section 1).

is Schur-convex for if and only if

is Schur-concave for if and only if
*Caseâ€‰â€‰3.* If , then
where
where ; in addition, the definition of implies that .

Using Lemma 6 gives
where

On the other hand, we deduce from the symmetry of with respect to and that
where

Now, by using Lemma 5 and combining the result stated in Case , we deduce that is Schur-convex under the conditions below:
This proves the validity of the first assertion in Theorem 9.

It is easy to find that

In view of the symmetry of between and , utilizing a positional exchange between and in the above expression gives

Hence, we deduce from Lemma 7 that
where

By using the same method as above, we can deduce that
where