Advances in Agriculture has been accepted into the following databases:
Food Science & Technology Abstracts
Advances in Agriculture publishes research on the cultivation of soil and crops, and the rearing of livestock. Its focus is on new methods and technologies for improving agricultural processes, increasing yield, conservation and breeding.
Advances in Agriculture maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Abstracting and Indexing
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Smallholders’ Cropping Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa
Increased concentration of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), is of great concern due to its impact on ozone layer depletion leading to climate change. Ozone layer depletion allows penetration of ultraviolet radiations, which are hazardous to human health. Climate change culminates in reduced food productivity. Limited empirical studies have been conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to quantify and understand the dynamics of soil N2O fluxes from smallholder cropping systems. The available literature on soil N2O fluxes in SSA is limited; hence, there is a pressing need to consolidate it to ease mitigation targeting and policy formulation initiatives. We reviewed the state of N2O emissions from selected cropping systems, drivers that significantly influence N2O emissions, and probable soil N2O emissions mitigation options from 30 studies in SSA cropping systems have been elucidated here. The review outcome indicates that coffee, tea, maize, and vegetables emit N2O ranging from 1 to 1.9, 0.4 to 3.9, 0.1 to 4.26, and 48 to 113.4 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr−1, respectively. The yield-scaled and N2O emissions factors ranged between 0.08 and 67 g N2O-N kg−1 and 0.01 and 4.1%, respectively, across cropping systems. Soil characteristics, farm management practices, and climatic and environmental conditions were significant drivers influencing N2O emissions across SSA cropping systems. We found that site-specific soil N2O emissions mitigation measures are required due to high variations in N2O drivers across SSA. We conclude that appropriate fertilizer and organic input management combined with improved soil management practices are potential approaches in N2O emissions mitigation in SSA. We recommend that (i) while formulating soil N2O emissions mitigation approaches, in SSA, policymakers should consider site-specific targeting approaches, and (ii) more empirical studies need to be conducted in diverse agroecological zones of SSA to qualify various mitigation options on N2O emissions, yield-scaled N2O emissions, and N2O emission factors which are essential in improving national and regional GHG inventories.
Beekeeping Production System, Challenges, and Opportunities in Selected Districts of South Wollo Zone, Amhara, Ethiopia
The study was conducted in Tehulederie, Kalu, and Dessie Zuria districts of South Wollo Zone, Amhara, Ethiopia, to assess the current beekeeping production system with available opportunities and challenges facing the beekeeping subsector. The districts were purposively selected based on potential and accessibility and then stratified into lowland, midland, and highland. In total, 135 beekeepers, of which 126 were males and 9 were females, were interviewed using a pretested semistructured questionnaire. The result revealed that beekeeping is actively practiced by the community regardless of age and sex. Three beekeeping production systems, that is, traditional, transitional, and movable frame hive, have been identified, accounting for 80%, 4%, and 16%, respectively. More than 80% of total bee colonies are managed being placed in the backyard. Besides, the study indicated that about 79% of the beekeepers keep bees primarily for income generation and home consumption. According to this study, the average bee colony holding size is 5.13 per a beekeeper. Also, this study identified that the swarm catching method is the major source of bee colony accounting for more than 45% to start beekeeping and 76% to increase existing colony number. Bee colony decline, absconding and swarming, honeybee pests and predators, and lack of training and extension were identified as major beekeeping challenges in the study areas. This study identified the beekeeping production system, opportunities, and challenges of the study areas and has significantly contributed to our knowledge and identified lack of extension and training as intervention areas. Therefore, practical beekeeping training and extension should get primary emphasis to combat the existing challenges.
Diversity of Agroforestry Species and Uses in Two Ecological Regions: A Case from Central Nepal
Multiple benefits of the agroforestry systems attract the attention of the global community and are being practiced in Nepal from time immemorial. However, there is minimal evidence of the diversity of species and the use value of plants and their comparative analysis in ecological regions. This study compares the diversity and use value of plants grown in the agroforestry system (home garden) in two separate ecological regions in central Nepal. The frequently used diversity indices were used to measure species diversity. A total of 130 and 99 species, 96 and 69 genera, and 50 and 40 families were reported from home gardens in the Terai and midhill ecological regions, respectively, where 58 species were common for both. The findings reveal Terai farmer prefers ornamental plants over fruit and fodder in the midhills indicating that horticulture and livestock-based livelihood could be enhanced in the hilly region. The diversity indices indicate a higher diversity of plants in the Terai region than in midhills. However, Mann–Whitney U test showed an insignificant difference in species diversity between the regions. Moreover, the chi-square test revealed that there is no significant variation in the use diversity for the regions. The results demonstrate similar plant diversity in the home garden despite the difference in ecological regions and species varieties. The finding assists in understanding the composition of biodiversity in agroforestry systems in specific areas of two different ecological zones and provides insight into the agroforestry for species preferences and use-related decisions. Future research with established management procedures may be required to confirm these findings and provide agroforestry establishment criteria for agricultural sustainability.
Analysis of Genotype-Environment Interaction and Yield Stability of Introduced Upland Rice in the Groundnut Basin Agroclimatic Zone of Senegal
Identification of highly performing varieties under Senegalese environment is crucial to sustain rice production. Genotype-environment interaction and stability performance on the grain yield of ten upland rice genotypes were investigated across 11 environments in Senegal during the rainy seasons of 2016 and 2017 to identify adapted varieties. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with three replications at each environment. Data on grain yield were recorded and analyzed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. The combined analysis of variance revealed that the grain yield was significantly affected by environment (67.9%), followed by genotype × environment (G × E) interaction (23.6%) and genotype (8.5%). The first two principal component axes were highly significant with 37.5 and 26% of the total observed G × E interaction variation, respectively. GGE biplot grouped the environments into four potential megaenvironments. Based on the yield stability index parameter and ranking GGE biplot, NERICA 8 and ART3-7-L9P8-1-B-B-1 were stable and high-yielding varieties compared to the local check NERICA 6. These varieties should be proposed for cultivation in order to sustain the rice production in the southern part of the groundnut basin of Senegal and used as parental lines in rice breeding program for grain yield improvement.
High-Density DArT Markers and Phenotypic Characterization of Cowpea Accessions (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp)
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important component of most traditional cropping systems in the tropics. It provides leafy vegetables and/or grains and forages and acts as a cover crop. We characterized 16 cowpea accession collections in Ghana using agromorphological traits and high-density silicoDArT markers for breeding and efficient conservational purposes. Principal component analysis indicated pod, leaf, and seed characters such as pod length, seeds per pod, terminal leaves shape, number of leaves, hundred seed weight, and seed weight per plant as discriminatory traits in revealing the variation among the accessions. Trait association analysis revealed a significant correlation between the pod number, pod length, seeds per pod, number of leaves, and seed weight per plant that could allow the selection to improve the grain yield. Moderate to high broad-sense heritability and genetic advance observed for most of the traits indicate that the selection would result in foreseeable genetic improvement. The 9,706 silicoDArT markers used in the study were able to reveal genetic variation among the tested cowpea collections. Accessions GH5039 and GH6056 were established as duplicates based on the silicoDArT markers, which could enhance efficient germplasm utilization and conservation. Accessions GH3685, GH3674, and GH4541 were identified for high leaf and pod production and high seed yield per plant, which could be good candidates for dual purpose cowpea production, which is common in the subsistence farming system.
Genotype X Environment Interaction and Yield Stability in Early-Maturing Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Landraces in Ethiopia
The study was conducted to estimate the effects of genotype, environment, and genotype × environment interaction on grain yield and yield-related traits and to identify stability genotype. At six environments, twenty-four cowpea landraces and one check were evaluated in a 5 × 5 triple lattice during the 2019 cropping season. Data were collected on yield and yield-related traits. The analysis of variance for each environment and across environments showed significant differences among genotypes, environments, and GEI for most traits including yield. Environment, genotype, and GEI showed 27.45%, 20.9%, and 49.55% contribution to the total sum of squares, respectively, for grain yield. This indicated that the environments were diverse and most of the variation in grain yield was caused due to interaction and environmental means. G24 (2632 kg ha−1) and G16 (2290 kg ha−1) were the highest yielder and stable genotypes with mean grain yields above the grand mean (2049.28 kg ha−1) and standard check (2273 kg ha−1). G24 and G16 were the most stable genotypes according to cultivar superiority, Wricke’s ecovalence, regression coefficient, and devotion from regression stability models.