Leaf Gas Exchange and Root Nodulation Respond to Planting Density in Soybean [Glycine max (L) Merrill]Read the full article
Advances in Agriculture publishes research on the cultivation of soil and crops, and the rearing of livestock. Its focus is on new methods and technologies for improving agricultural processes, increasing yield, conservation and breeding.
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Performance Evaluation of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes for Yield and Related Traits at Areka, Southern Ethiopia
Common bean is a source of dietary protein and the second most important legume crop in Africa next to faba bean. In Ethiopia common bean is the most important legume as the source of protein and export commodity. Hence, development of commercial varieties is one of the major tasks to meet increasing demand of the stake holders. To this effect, understanding the genetic variability, heritability and association between grain yield and other agronomic traits is necessary for effective plant breeding program. In this context, a field experiment was conducted during 2016/2017 cropping season at Areka Agricultural Research Center in southern Ethiopia with the objective of evaluating common bean genotypes for yield and related traits and also estimate the variability present among the genotypes. Treatments consisted of thirty three common bean genotypes were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Common bean genotypes exhibited considerable variations for agronomic traits and grain yield. Majority of the traits; plant height, number of nodes, internode length, leaf area, LAI, biological yield, pods per plant, HI and HSW had higher PCV. Genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) varied from 1.88% to 37.72% with the highest GCV recorded for HSW. Heritability in broad sense () ranged from 0.52% to 95.33% with the highest value observed for HSW. The present study revealed significant variation among genotypes for traits considered except few insignificant traits. In addition, almost all the genotypes were well adapted to the study area and hence, the high yielding genotypes could be directly used as seed sources for production of common bean and some of the genotypes with best diseases resistance reaction, and with high heritability can possibly be used in common bean improvement program.
Biogenic AgNPs—A Nano Weapon against Bacterial Canker of Tomato (BCT)
Bacterial canker of tomato caused by the bacterial pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) is a major limiting factor for tomato production worldwide. Currently there exists no resistant variety of tomato to bacterial canker; only cultural and chemical controls are available. This study synthesized AgNPs (silver nanoparticles) via a green chemistry route and investigated their bactericidal potential against bacterial canker of tomato (BCT). AgNPs were prepared using mycellial aqueous extract of agriculturally beneficial fungi Pythium oligandrum. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by using UV–Vis spectroscopy for the absorbance pattern while their morphology was investigated by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The X-ray diffraction profile for the biogenic AgNPs confirmed a crystalline structure with an average particle size of 12 nm. AgNPs treated seeds showed a normal germination rate with normal seedling growth. An in-vitro study found that the prepared AgNPs caused the maximum inhibition of the bacterial pathogen. In the greenhouse the introduction of AgNPs significantly prevents and inhibits the bacterial pathogen Cmm on tomato plants. These results suggest that this process is a strong candidate for industrial scale production of AgNPs. These particles act as an inhibitor and broad spectrum antibacterial agent against cmm, and hence offer a new and eco-friendly alternative in BCT control.
Quantitative Determination of Cadmium (Cd) in Soil-Plant System in Potato Cropping (Solanum tuberosum var. Huayro)
One of the main daily consumer products in Peru is potato, but in recent years, the addition of agrochemicals with possible heavy metal content, such as cadmium (Cd) has decreased the quality of the final product resulting in a negative impact on soils. The objective of this study is to determine the concentration of Cd in cultivation areas and in potato plantations. For this purpose, 6 tuber samples, 6 leaf samples, as well as 6 samples of agricultural soil used for cultivation were taken. Subsequently, the concentrations of Cd were evaluated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and the results were subjected to variance analysis and mean comparison test (Tukey ). Soil analysis for Cd shows that 50% of samples are not suitable for agricultural use, with concentrations reaching 3.99 mg kg−1 Cd; 83% of tuber samples pose a health risk, exceeding the Maximum Allowable Limits (0.1 mg kg−1) set by the Codex Alimentarius; and in the case of the leaves as a whole they have alarming levels of Cd, exceeding 2 mg kg−1.
Uptake and Dissipation of Carbofuran and Its Metabolite in Chinese Kale and Brinjal Cultivated Under Humid Tropic Climate
Carbofuran is an insecticide with a broad spectrum of activity and is relatively cheap. It is banned in many countries in the world; however, it remains widely used in Asia, Australia, and South America. Carbofuran is commonly used in vegetable farming in Malaysia and it is a legally registered pesticide. This study reports the uptake and dissipation of carbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran in Chinese kale and brinjal under humid tropic field conditions. The residue profile in plants demonstrated an increase to a maximum, followed by a consistent reduction to a level below the limit of determination (<0.01 mg/kg) over the experimental period. The maximum residue concentration was attained on Day 3 for kale (1.16 mg/kg fresh weight) and Day 7 for brinjal (0.06 mg/kg fresh weight) after carbofuran application. In order to comply with the maximum residue level (MRL) of 0.01 mg/kg, the preharvest interval for kale and brinjal were suggested at 23 and 28 days, respectively. The preharvest interval indicates that carbofuran is not recommended for Chinese kale but it is acceptable for brinjal. The average half-life of carbofuran in soil is 1.24 days, shorter than the literature values reported based on temperate condition, indicating accelerated dissipation under tropical climate. The estimated half-life of carbofuran in leaves was shorter than that in fruits with kale leaves reported at 2.54 days whilst brinjal leaves and fruits recorded at 3.22 and 10.33 days, respectively.
Biochemical Charcterization of Some Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) Germplasm in Ghana
Corms of eighteen (18) genotypes comprising twelve (12) introduced and six (6) local genotypes were studied for their nutrient quality to provide information on their nutrient characteristics for a holistic development of the crop. The crop is known for its edible corms and leaves. Corms are boiled before eating and take a short time to cook as their carbohydrate structure is not complex. The leaves are eaten as vegetables. The crops were planted at Nobewam in the Ejisu-Juaben Municipality in the Ashanti Region of Ghana using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The biochemical or nutritional analysis was done at Crop and Soil Sciences laboratory at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). Data were collected on the chemical and mineral compositions of the genotypes (corms). Variations were observed in both chemical and mineral characteristics. Carbohydrate content of the genotypes ranged from 62% to 76%; protein ranged from 13% to 25%; fibre ranged from 1% to 2%; calcium ranged from 0.29% to 0.72% and iron content ranged from 0.18 mg/100 g to 1.18 mg/100 g. Significant differences were observed in both chemical and mineral traits, indicating a higher degree of variability in the genotypes. Significant and positive correlations were observed between protein and energy levels; magnesium and iron; magnesium and calcium; and potassium and ash. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the first component (PC1) accounted for 96% of variation. Some genotypes including; BL/SM/10, BL/SM/132, KA/019, SAO/020, BL/SM/151, BL/SM/80, BL/SM/116, BL/SM/16, and KA/035 possess desirable nutrient levels such as protein, fibre, carbohydrate, and iron which could be exploited for further development of taro in Ghana.
Description of Wheat Rusts and Their Virulence Variations Determined through Annual Pathotype Surveys and Controlled Multi-Pathotype Tests
Wheat production started in Australia around 1788 using early maturing varieties adapted to Australian conditions that were able to escape diseases as well as moisture stress conditions. Wheat production is concentrated on mainland Australia in a narrow crescent land considered as the wheat belt occupying an area of about 13.9 million hectares. Rusts are the most important production constraints to wheat production in the world and Australia causing significant yield losses and decreased the qualities of grains. Wheat is affected by three different types of rust diseases: leaf rust, stripe rust or yellow rust, and stem rust. Each species of the rust pathogen has many races or pathotypes that parasitize only on certain varieties of host species, which can only be traced and identified by differential cultivars. Pathotype surveillance is the basis for information on the virulence or pathogenic variations existing in a particular country or wheat growing region of the world. Studies in pathotype variation are conducted in controlled environments using multi-pathotype tests. The currently cultivated commercial wheat varieties of Australia possess leaf rust resistant genes: Lr1, Lr3a, Lr13, Lr13+, Lr14a, Lr17a, Lr17b, Lr20, Lr23, Lr24, Lr26, Lr27, Lr31, Lr34, Lr37, and Lr46; stem rust resistance genes: Sr2, Sr5, Sr8a, Sr8b, Sr9b, Sr9g, Sr11, Sr12, Sr13, Sr15, Sr17, Sr22, Sr24, Sr26, Sr30, Sr36, Sr38, and Sr57; and stripe rust resistance genes: Yr4, Yr9, Yr17, Yr18, Yr27, and Yr33. This paper discusses the historical and current significance of rusts to wheat production in the world with particular reference to Australia viz-a-viz detail description of each of the three rusts and their respective virulence variations through the resistance genes deployed in the commercial cultivars.