Micropropagation of Livingstone Potato (Plectranthus esculentus N.E.Br)Read the full article
Advances in Agriculture publishes research on the cultivation of soil and crops, and the rearing of livestock. Its focus is on new methods and technologies for improving agricultural processes, increasing yield, conservation and breeding.
Advances in Agriculture maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Abstracting and Indexing
Latest ArticlesMore articles
How Do Climate and Nonclimatic Variables Influence the Production of Agricultural Staple Crops in Vulnerable Rural Communities in the Bawku Municipality of Northern Ghana?
We examined the influence of climate (temperature and rainfall) and nonclimatic variables (soil fertility using soil pH and organic matter) on the production of agricultural staple crops (maize [Zea mays L.], millet [Pennisetum glaucum L.], and rice [Oryza sativa L.]) in vulnerable communities in the Bawku Municipality of northern Ghana. Using five selected farming communities as study sites, multiple datasets were obtained from primary and secondary sources. Participatory approaches together with questionnaires were used as data collection tools to quantify and qualify climate (temperature and rainfall) and nonclimatic variables (soil fertility using soil pH and organic matter) and crop production. The Mann–Kendall trend test results indicate a significant variation in annual rainfall for the 15-year period (1999 to 2013) with a relatively stable mean temperature variation in the Municipality. The results of the multiple regression indicate that climatic and nonclimatic factors, particularly rainfall, soil pH, and organic matter have a significant positive effect on maize, millet, and rice when other factors are held constant. We conclude that to ease the burden of climate on production, better irrigation facilities be provided for the Municipality and weather forecasting information on the pending growing season be made available to farmers to enable them take informed decision. Also, policy on climate adaptation should take into account the interaction of external drivers of climate and nonclimatic variables to better build farmers’ resilience for food security at the local level.
Efficacy of Biorational Compounds against Mustard Aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.) and English Grain Aphid (Sitobion avenae Fab.) under Laboratory Conditions in Nepal
Mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) and English grain aphid (Sitobion avenae) are among the most important pests in mustard and wheat fields in Nepal. Biocide Manic (Metarhizium anisopliae a.i. = 1 × 109 spores/ml) at 3 ml/l water, Agri Sakti (Beauveria bassiana a.i. = 1 × 109 spores/ml) at 3.3 ml/l water, Varunastra (Verticillium lecanii spores 2% aqueous suspension, 2 × 108 CFU/ml) at 6 ml/l water, Mahastra (Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki 0.5% wettable powder) at 6 g/l water, Neemraj Super (Azadirachitin 0.3% w/w) at 3.3 ml/l water, Tracer (Spinosad 90% spinosyns) at 0.33 ml/l water, and control treatment (pure water) were used to test their efficacy against L. erysimi and S. avenae, using leaf dip and spray methods under laboratory conditions in Rupandehi, Nepal, in the year 2018. Each treatment was replicated four times, and the experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design. Mortality of aphids was recorded at 24, 48, 72, and 98 hours after treatment application. The result revealed highest mortality of mustard aphids with Agri Sakti at 24 hours after treatment (HAT); however, Neemraj Super was found to be the most effective at 48, 72, and 96 HAT with the leaf spray method. With the leaf dip method, Neemraj Super killed more mustard aphids than other treatments at all observed time points. Among tested biorational products, Agri Sakti was found to be most effective against English grain aphids in both leaf spray and leaf dip methods. In all the bioassays, the mortality caused by biorational compounds over control was highly significant. The present study suggests for further verification of the biorational products in the field and development of novel management strategies against different species of aphids.
Leaf Gas Exchange and Root Nodulation Respond to Planting Density in Soybean [Glycine max (L) Merrill]
Planting density influences structural characteristics and affects mineral nutrient acquisition, irradiance and photosynthesis amongst plants. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of planting density on leaf gas exchange and nodulation of soybean (Glycine max (L) Merrill). The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in a 5 by 2 factorial treatment arrangement and was replicated three times. Planting density (10, 12, 20, 40, and 80 plants m−2) and soybean varieties (EAI 3600 and DPSB 19) were first and second factors, respectively. Collected data were subjected to analysis of variance in GENSTAT. Significantly different treatment means were separated using Tukey’s honestly significant difference test at 0.05 significance level. Higher planting density significantly increased () interception of photosynthetically active radiation. Increasing number of plants per unit area significantly () reduced root nodulation, stomata conductance, sub-stomatal CO2 concentration, photosynthetic and transpiration rates. Total chlorophyll content was not responsive to planting density though concentration of chlorophyll “a” content was significantly () higher at lower plant density than at higher plant density. Soil moisture status increased with reduction in plant density. Indeterminate variety DPSB 19 had higher rates of stomata conductance, photosynthesis and sub-stomatal CO2 concentration compared to determinate variety EAI 3600.
Performance Evaluation of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes for Yield and Related Traits at Areka, Southern Ethiopia
Common bean is a source of dietary protein and the second most important legume crop in Africa next to faba bean. In Ethiopia common bean is the most important legume as the source of protein and export commodity. Hence, development of commercial varieties is one of the major tasks to meet increasing demand of the stake holders. To this effect, understanding the genetic variability, heritability and association between grain yield and other agronomic traits is necessary for effective plant breeding program. In this context, a field experiment was conducted during 2016/2017 cropping season at Areka Agricultural Research Center in southern Ethiopia with the objective of evaluating common bean genotypes for yield and related traits and also estimate the variability present among the genotypes. Treatments consisted of thirty three common bean genotypes were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Common bean genotypes exhibited considerable variations for agronomic traits and grain yield. Majority of the traits; plant height, number of nodes, internode length, leaf area, LAI, biological yield, pods per plant, HI and HSW had higher PCV. Genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) varied from 1.88% to 37.72% with the highest GCV recorded for HSW. Heritability in broad sense () ranged from 0.52% to 95.33% with the highest value observed for HSW. The present study revealed significant variation among genotypes for traits considered except few insignificant traits. In addition, almost all the genotypes were well adapted to the study area and hence, the high yielding genotypes could be directly used as seed sources for production of common bean and some of the genotypes with best diseases resistance reaction, and with high heritability can possibly be used in common bean improvement program.
Biogenic AgNPs—A Nano Weapon against Bacterial Canker of Tomato (BCT)
Bacterial canker of tomato caused by the bacterial pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) is a major limiting factor for tomato production worldwide. Currently there exists no resistant variety of tomato to bacterial canker; only cultural and chemical controls are available. This study synthesized AgNPs (silver nanoparticles) via a green chemistry route and investigated their bactericidal potential against bacterial canker of tomato (BCT). AgNPs were prepared using mycellial aqueous extract of agriculturally beneficial fungi Pythium oligandrum. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by using UV–Vis spectroscopy for the absorbance pattern while their morphology was investigated by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The X-ray diffraction profile for the biogenic AgNPs confirmed a crystalline structure with an average particle size of 12 nm. AgNPs treated seeds showed a normal germination rate with normal seedling growth. An in-vitro study found that the prepared AgNPs caused the maximum inhibition of the bacterial pathogen. In the greenhouse the introduction of AgNPs significantly prevents and inhibits the bacterial pathogen Cmm on tomato plants. These results suggest that this process is a strong candidate for industrial scale production of AgNPs. These particles act as an inhibitor and broad spectrum antibacterial agent against cmm, and hence offer a new and eco-friendly alternative in BCT control.
Quantitative Determination of Cadmium (Cd) in Soil-Plant System in Potato Cropping (Solanum tuberosum var. Huayro)
One of the main daily consumer products in Peru is potato, but in recent years, the addition of agrochemicals with possible heavy metal content, such as cadmium (Cd) has decreased the quality of the final product resulting in a negative impact on soils. The objective of this study is to determine the concentration of Cd in cultivation areas and in potato plantations. For this purpose, 6 tuber samples, 6 leaf samples, as well as 6 samples of agricultural soil used for cultivation were taken. Subsequently, the concentrations of Cd were evaluated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and the results were subjected to variance analysis and mean comparison test (Tukey ). Soil analysis for Cd shows that 50% of samples are not suitable for agricultural use, with concentrations reaching 3.99 mg kg−1 Cd; 83% of tuber samples pose a health risk, exceeding the Maximum Allowable Limits (0.1 mg kg−1) set by the Codex Alimentarius; and in the case of the leaves as a whole they have alarming levels of Cd, exceeding 2 mg kg−1.