Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Agriculture
Volume 2016, Article ID 1717352, 9 pages
Research Article

Prospects of Organic Farming in Bhutan: A SWOT Analysis

1College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan, Lobesa, Wangdue, Bhutan
2Renewable Natural Resources Research and Development Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests, Bumthang, Bhutan

Received 15 March 2016; Revised 23 May 2016; Accepted 20 June 2016

Academic Editor: Claus A. Soerensen

Copyright © 2016 Sonam Tashi and Kesang Wangchuk. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. I. F. O. A. M (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements), IFOAM Basic Standards, International Federation of Organic Movements, Tholey-Theley, Germany, 2000.
  2. FAO, “Organic agriculture,”
  3. N. E.-H. Scialabba, “Organic agriculture and food security,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Organic Agriculture and Food Security, FAO, Rome, Italy, May 2007.
  4. G. Rahmann, “Biodiversity and organic farming: what do we know?” Landbauforschung Volkenrode, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 189–208, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. UNEP, Organic Agriculture—A Step towards the Green Economy in the Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia Region: Case Studies from Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine, United Nations Environmental Programme, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011.
  6. H. L. Tuomisto, I. D. Hodge, P. Riordan, and D. W. Macdonald, “Does organic farming reduce environmental impacts? A meta-analysis of European research,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 112, pp. 309–320, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. G. Hole, A. J. Perkins, J. D. Wilson, I. H. Alexander, P. V. Grice, and A. D. Evans, “Does organic farming benefit biodiversity?” Biological Conservation, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 113–130, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. Nemecek, D. Dubois, O. Huguenin-Elie, and G. Gaillard, “Life cycle assessment of Swiss farming systems: I. Integrated and organic farming,” Agricultural Systems, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 217–232, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. FAO, Organic Agriculture, Environment and Food Security, FAO, Rome, Italy, 2013.
  10. P. Kristiansen and C. Merfield, “Overview of organic agriculture,” in Organic Agriculture—A Global Perspective, P. Kristiansen, A. Taji, and J. Reganold, Eds., CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  11. FiBL-IFOAM, The World of Organic Agriculture, FiBL, Frick, Switzerland; IFOAM, Bonn, Germany, 2014.
  12. H. Kirchmann, L. Bergström, T. Kätterer et al., “Can organic crop production feed the world?” in Organic Crop Production-Ambitions and Limitations, H. Kirchmann and L. Bergström, Eds., Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  13. H. J. L. Jenkins, J. R. Godwin, B. Pearce et al., “A comparison between conventional and organic farming practice,” in Proceedings of the 19th World Congress of Soil Sciences, Soil Solutions for a Changing World, pp. 1–4, Brisbane, Australia, 2010.
  14. V. Seufert, N. Ramankutty, and J. A. Foley, “Comparing the yields of organic and conventional agriculture,” Nature, vol. 484, no. 7397, pp. 229–232, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. C. Mendoza, M. L. Pecadizo, and W. L. D. L. Santos, “Comparative case study of organic LEISA and conventional rice farming systems in Quezon province, Philippines,” Philippine Journal of Crop Science, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 35–40, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  16. N. Nemes, Comparative Analysis of Organic and Non-Organic Farming Systems: A Critical Assessment of Farm Profitability, Food and Agriculture Organization, UN, Rome, Italy, 2009.
  17. C. Qing-gen and W. Lei, “Study on contribution of potassium, nitrogen and organic fertilizers matter,” Agriculture Science and Technology, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1381–1384, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  18. K. Ura, S. Alkire, T. Zangmo et al., A Short Guide to Gross National Happiness Index, The Centre for Bhutan Studies, Thimphu, Bhutan, 2012.
  19. National Framework for Organic Farming in Bhutan, Ministry of Agriculture, Thimphu, Bhutan, 2007.
  20. Y. J. Thinley, “Statement on Bhutan's Organic Policy,” Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests, Royal Government of Bhutan, pp. 1–3, 2011.
  21. A. Thimmaiah, A Guide to Organic Agriculture in Bhutan, Ministry of Agriculture, Royal Government of Bhutan, Thimphu, Bhutan, 2007.
  22. K. Pradhan, T. Samdrup, and R. T. Gurung, Towards Food Security: Challenges and Strategies for Bhutan, Food Security on Anthroplogical Perspective, Osaka, Japan, 2012.
  23. A. Leu, “Smallholder organic farming versus GMOs,” Ecology and Farming, vol. 51, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  24. A. Bogner, B. Littig, and W. Menz, “Introduction: expert interviews—an introduction to a new methodological debate,” in Interviewing Participants, A. Bogner, B. Littig, and W. Menz, Eds., pp. 1–13, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, NY, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  25. A. Humphrey, “SWOT analysis for management consulting,” SRI Alumni Newsletter, vol. 1, pp. 7–8, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  26. Likert, “A technique for the measurement of attitudes,” Archives of Psychology, vol. 140, pp. 1–55, 1932. View at Google Scholar
  27. J. Jacoby and M. S. Matell, “Three-point likert scales are good enough,” Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 495–500, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. S. Landau and B. S. Everitt, A Handbook of Statistical Analyses Using SPSS, FL Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2004.
  29. G. S. Tideman, “Gross national happiness,” in Ethical Principles and Economic Transformation-A Buddhist Approach, L. Zsolnai, Ed., vol. 33, pp. 133–154, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  30. K. Tshomo, Bhutan's Status on Development Strategy for Organic Sector, International Organic and Ecological Agriculture in Mountain Ecosystems, Thimphu, Bhutan, 2014.
  31. I. F. O. A. M, Basic Standards for Organic Production and Processing, International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements, Tholey-Theley, Germany, 2002.
  32. S. Tashi, Organic Nutrient Management of Citrus Mandarin for Bhutan, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, 2007.
  33. D. Neuhoff, S. Tashi, G. Rahmann, and M. Denich, “Organic agriculture in Bhutan: potential and challenges,” Journal of Organic Agriculture, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 209–221, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. K. Lyons and D. Burch, “Socio-economic effects of organic agriculture in Africa,” in Proceedings of the 16th IFOAM Organic World Congress, Modena, Italy, 2008.
  35. A. Leu, Adaptation for Farmers—Building Climate Change Resilience through Organic Systems, 2011.
  36. D. J. Connor, “Organic agriculture cannot feed the world,” Field Crops Research, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 187–190, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Tashi and K. Wangchuk, “Organic vs. conventional rice production: comparative assessment under farmers' condition in Bhutan,” Organic Agriculture, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. W. Roder, K. Dorji, and G. Gratzer, “Nutrient flow from the forest—source of life for traditional Bhutanese agriculture,” Austrian Journal of Forest Science, vol. 1, pp. 65–72, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  39. V. Shiva, The Seeds of Suicide: How Monsanto Destroys Farming, Global Research, 2013.