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Advances in Acoustics and Vibration
Volume 2010, Article ID 474695, 7 pages
Research Article

Identification of Motive Forces on the Whole Body System during Walking

1Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Sir George Williams Campus, 1515 St. Catherine Street West, Montréal, QC, Canada H3G 2W1
2Department of Exercise Science, Concordia University, Loyola Campus, 7141 Sherbrooke Street West, Montréal, QC, Canada H4B 1R6

Received 28 June 2010; Accepted 13 September 2010

Academic Editor: K. M. Liew

Copyright © 2010 Raghdan J. AlKhoury et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Motive forces by muscles are applied to different parts of the human body in a periodic fashion when walking at a uniform rate. In this study, the whole human body is modeled as a multidegree of freedom (MDOF) system with seven degrees of freedom. In view of the changing contact conditions with the ground due to alternating feet movements, the system under study is considered piecewise time invariant for each half-period when one foot is in contact with the ground. Forces transmitted from the body to the ground while walking at a normal pace are experimentally measured and numerically simulated. Fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is employed to numerically simulate the forces acting on different masses of the body. An optimization problem is formulated with the squared difference between the measured and simulated forces transmitted to the ground as the objective function, and the motive forces on the body masses as the design variables to solve.