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Advances in Acoustics and Vibration
Volume 2012, Article ID 929174, 15 pages
Research Article

High-Frequency Underwater Acoustic Propagation in a Port Modeled as a Three-Dimensional Duct Closed at One End Using the Method of Images

Department of Ocean and Mechanical Engineering, SeaTech, Florida Atlantic University, 101 North Beach Road, Dania Beach, FL 33004, USA

Received 15 February 2012; Accepted 4 April 2012

Academic Editor: Jafar Saniie

Copyright © 2012 Pierre-Philippe J. Beaujean and Matthew D. Staska. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A computer-efficient model for underwater acoustic propagation in a shallow, three-dimensional rectangular duct closed at one end has been developed using the method of images. The duct simulates a turning basin located in a port, surrounded with concrete walls, and filled with sea water. The channel bottom is composed of silt. The modeled impulse response is compared with the impulse response measured between 15 kHz and 33 kHz. Despite small sensor-position inaccuracies and an approximated duct geometry, the impulse response can be modeled with a relative echo magnitude error of 1.62 dB at worst and a relative echo location error varying between 0% and 4% when averaged across multiple measurements and sensor locations. This is a sufficient level of accuracy for the simulation of an acoustic communication system operating in the same frequency band and in shallow waters, as time fluctuations in echo magnitude commonly reach 10 dB in this type of environment.